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Academic integrity

The School of Social Work adheres to the University of Nevada, Reno Academic Standards Policy for Students concerning issues of academic integrity. Please see the UNR website for a complete description, definitions and policies regarding class conduct and academic dishonesty.

Accommodation for students with disabilities

Students who require additional support due to disabling conditions should discuss their needs with their instructors at the start of each semester. Accommodations for all reasonable requests will be made for documented disabling conditions. In addition, students are encouraged to contact the UNR Disability Resource Center at (775) 784-6000 to access a range of supportive services.

Attendance policy

The faculty of the School of Social Work believe that classroom attendance and participation are critical aspects of professional socialization. Students are responsible for assisting in the creation of a learning environment that promotes such socialization. To do so, students should assume responsibility for their own learning and be engaged within the course room. It is expected for students to log into the online classroom a minimum of three times a week to be successfully engaged. Attendance and participation will be part of grading, as determined by the course instructor. Opportunities for make-up assignments are determined at the discretion of individual instructors.

Confidentiality of case material outside of an agency

NASW Code of Ethics requirements regarding confidentiality of client information extend to the use of confidential information from field work in classes, seminars and in student assignments. Students may not divulge client, collateral or collegial information, disguising all names, demographic information and any case details that might identify a client or co-worker. Client files and records should never be removed from the agency for any purpose.

Nondiscrimination policy

The programs of the School of Social Work are conducted without discrimination on the basis of race, color, gender, creed, ethnic or national origin, disability, political orientation, or sexual orientation. This policy applies to the baccalaureate and master’s programs, the field education program, and all admission, employment, and financial aid decisions.


In its description of the Social Work major, the University of Nevada, Reno catalog states that:

“The admission and retention of students in the program is subject to the professional judgment of the social work faculty.”

Retention in the MSW Program is based on student performance in two general areas: academics and adherence to professional values and standards of behavior. Retention in the social work major requires students and maintain a 3.0 (B) overall grade point average—with a letter grade of “C” or higher in each of the graduate course, including the required 3 credits of electives. Additionally, students must adhere to the academic and professional standards outlined in UNR’s Student Handbook for Student Code of Conduct, the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics and the State Board of Examiners for Social Workers, Nevada Legislature’s Standards of Practice.

Dismissal policy

The School of Social Work adheres to the Dismissal Policy of the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) Code, Title 2, Chapter 11.

Foundation competencies & associated practice behaviors

Competency 1: Demonstrate ethical and professional behavior

Social workers understand the value base of the profession and its ethical standards, as well as relevant laws and regulations that may impact practice at the micro, mezzo, and macro levels. Social workers understand frameworks of ethical decision-making and how to apply principles of critical thinking to those frameworks in practice, research, and policy arenas. Social workers recognize personal values and the distinction between personal and professional values. They also understand how their personal experiences and affective reactions influence their professional judgment and behavior. Social workers understand the profession’s history, its mission, and the roles and responsibilities of the profession. Social Workers also understand the role of other professions when engaged in inter-professional teams. Social workers recognize the importance of life-long learning and are committed to continually updating their skills to ensure they are relevant and effective. Social workers also understand emerging forms of technology and the ethical use of technology in social work practice.

Foundation practice behaviors

  • Make ethical decisions by applying the standards of the NASW Code of Ethics, relevant laws and regulations, models for ethical decision-making, ethical conduct of research, and additional codes of ethics as appropriate to context.
  • Use reflection and self-regulation to manage personal values and maintain professionalism in practice situations.
  • Demonstrate professional demeanor in behavior; appearance; and oral, written, and electronic communication.
  • Use technology ethically and appropriately to facilitate practice outcomes.
  • Use supervision and consultation to guide professional judgment and behavior.

Competency 2: Engage diversity and difference in practice

Social workers understand how diversity and difference characterize and shape the human experience and are critical to the formation of identity. The dimensions of diversity are understood as the intersectionality of multiple factors including but not limited to age, class, color, culture, disability and ability, ethnicity, gender, gender identity and expression, immigration status, marital status, political ideology, race, religion/spirituality, sex, sexual orientation, and tribal sovereign status. Social workers understand that, as a consequence of difference, a person’s life experiences may include oppression, poverty, marginalization, and alienation as well as privilege, power, and acclaim. Social workers also understand the forms and mechanisms of oppression and discrimination and recognize the extent to which a culture’s structures and values, including social, economic, political, and cultural exclusions, may oppress, marginalize, alienate, or create privilege and power.

Foundation practice behaviors

  • Apply and communicate understanding of the importance of diversity and difference in shaping life experiences in practice at the micro, mezzo, and macro levels.
  • Present themselves as learners and engage clients and constituencies as experts of their own experiences.
  • Apply self-awareness and self-regulation to manage the influence of personal biases and values in working with diverse clients and constituencies.

Competency 3: Advance human rights and social, economic, and environmental justice

Social workers understand that every person regardless of position in society has fundamental human rights such as freedom, safety, privacy, an adequate standard of living, health care, and education. Social workers understand the global interconnections of oppression and human rights violations, and are knowledgeable about theories of human need and social justice and strategies to promote social and economic justice and human rights. Social workers understand strategies designed to eliminate oppressive structural barriers to ensure that social goods, rights, and responsibilities are distributed equitably and that civil, political, environmental, economic, social, and cultural human rights are protected.

Foundation practice behaviors

  • Apply their understanding of social, economic, and environmental justice to advocate for human rights at the individual and system levels.
  • Engage in practices that advance social, economic, and environmental justice.

Competency 4: Engage in practice-informed research and research-informed practice

Social workers understand quantitative and qualitative research methods and their respective roles in advancing a science of social work and in evaluating their practice. Social workers know the principles of logic, scientific inquiry, and culturally informed and ethical approaches to building knowledge. Social workers understand that evidence that informs practice derives from multi- disciplinary sources and multiple ways of knowing. They also understand the processes for translating research findings into effective practice.

Foundation practice behaviors

  • Use practice experience and theory to inform scientific inquiry and research.
  • Apply critical thinking to engage in analysis of quantitative and qualitative research methods and research findings.
  • Use and translate research evidence to inform and Excellerate practice, policy, and service delivery.

Competency 5: Engage in policy practice

Social workers understand that human rights and social justice, as well as social welfare and services, are mediated by policy and its implementation at the federal, state, and local levels. Social workers understand the history and current structures of social policies and services, the role of policy in service delivery, and the role of practice in policy development. Social workers understand their role in policy development and implementation within their practice settings at the micro, mezzo, and macro levels and they actively engage in policy practice to effect change within those settings. Social workers recognize and understand the historical, social, cultural, economic, organizational, environmental, and global influences that affect social policy. They are also knowledgeable about policy formulation, analysis, implementation, and evaluation.

Foundation practice behaviors

  • Identify social policy at the local, state, and federal level that impacts well-being, service delivery, and access to social services.
  • Assess how social welfare and economic policies impact the delivery of and access to social services.
  • Apply critical thinking to analyze, formulate, and advocate for policies that advance human rights and social, economic, and environmental justice.

Competency 6: Engage with individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities

Social workers understand that engagement is an ongoing component of the dynamic and interactive process of social work practice with, and on behalf of, diverse individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities. Social workers value the importance of human relationships. Social workers understand theories of human behavior and the social environment, and critically evaluate and apply this knowledge to facilitate engagement with clients and constituencies, including individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities. Social workers understand strategies to engage diverse clients and constituencies to advance practice effectiveness.

Foundation practice behaviors

  • Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks to engage with clients and constituencies.
  • Use empathy, reflection, and interpersonal skills to effectively engage diverse clients and constituencies.

Competency 7: Assess individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities

Social workers understand that assessment is an ongoing component of the dynamic and interactive process of social work practice with, and on behalf of, diverse individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities. Social workers understand theories of human behavior and the social environment, and critically evaluate and apply this knowledge in the assessment of diverse clients and constituencies, including individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities. Social workers understand methods of assessment with diverse clients and constituencies to advance practice effectiveness. Social workers recognize the implications of the larger practice context in the assessment process and value the importance of inter-professional collaboration in this process. Social workers understand how their personal experiences and affective reactions may affect their assessment and decision-making.

Foundation practice behaviors

  • Collect and organize data, and apply critical thinking to interpret information from clients and constituencies.
  • Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in the analysis of assessment data from clients and constituencies.
  • Develop mutually agreed-on intervention goals and objectives based on the critical assessment of strengths, needs, and challenges within clients and constituencies.
  • Select appropriate intervention strategies based on the assessment, research knowledge, and values and preferences of clients and constituencies.

Competency 8: Intervene with individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities

Social workers understand that intervention is an ongoing component of the dynamic and interactive process of social work practice with, and on behalf of, diverse individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities. Social workers are knowledgeable about evidence-informed interventions to achieve the goals of clients and constituencies, including individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities. Social workers understand theories of human behavior and the social environment, and critically evaluate and apply this knowledge to effectively intervene with clients and constituencies. Social workers understand methods of identifying, analyzing and implementing evidence-informed interventions to achieve client and constituency goals. Social workers value the importance of interprofessional teamwork and communication in interventions, recognizing that beneficial outcomes may require interdisciplinary, interprofessional, and inter-organizational collaboration.

Foundation practice behaviors

  • Critically choose and implement interventions to achieve practice goals and enhance capacities of clients and constituencies.
  • Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in interventions with clients and constituencies.
  • Use inter-professional collaboration as appropriate to achieve beneficial practice outcomes.
  • Negotiate, mediate, and advocate with and on behalf of diverse clients and constituencies.
  • Facilitate effective transitions and endings that advance mutually agreed-on goals.

Competency 9: Evaluate practice with individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities

Social workers understand that evaluation is an ongoing component of the dynamic and interactive process of social work practice with, and on behalf of, diverse individuals, families, groups, organizations and communities. Social workers recognize the importance of evaluating processes and outcomes to advance practice, policy, and service delivery effectiveness. Social workers understand theories of human behavior and the social environment, and critically evaluate and apply this knowledge in evaluating outcomes. Social workers understand qualitative and quantitative methods for evaluating outcomes and practice effectiveness.

Foundation practice behaviors

  • Select and use appropriate methods for evaluation of outcomes.
  • Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in the evaluation of outcomes.
  • Critically analyze, monitor, and evaluate intervention and program processes and outcomes.
  • Apply evaluation findings to Excellerate practice effectiveness at the micro, mezzo, and macro levels.

Grievance procedure

Under the remediation policy, there are 4 points at which a student can initiate a grievance: 

  1. If the student believes that the behavior cited in the original concern is unfounded; 
  2. If the student believes that the Remediation Committee's identification of a relevant competency, practice behavior, code of conduct, ethical standard is inaccurate;
  3. If the student believes that the remediation decision or Action Plan does not address the original concern; or
  4. If the student believes they are being held to a higher standard of performance than other students completing the same program of study.

The written grievance should be submitted to the Director of The School of Social Work no later than 10 working days following the decision point in question (see 1-4 above). The burden of proof during the grievance process rests with the student. If the Director determines that the student has provided adequate evidence to support his or her grievance, the Director may dismiss the issue with no further action required. Alternatively, if the Director determines that there is not adequate evidence to support the student’s grievance, he or she will redirect the student to the Remediation Team for further steps/action. The Director will provide his or her decision to the student and Remediation Team in writing within 10 working days of receipt of the student’s written grievance.

Grade appeal policy

The School of Social Work adheres to the University’s policy by which students may appeal a grade. This policy states “…a grade assigned by an instructor is only subject to the appeals procedure if:

  • There was a clerical/administrative error in the calculation and/or assignment of the grade;
  • The grade assignment was based on factors other than the student's performance in the course and/or completion of course requirements; or
  • The grade assignment meant that the student was held to more demanding standards than other students in the same section of the course.

The burden of proof of these conditions rests on the student.” The policy advises students to begin the process by consulting with the course Instructor. If the issue is not resolved at that level students may proceed with filing a Grade Appeal Form. The full policy and procedures for filing a Grade Appeal can be found at under section 3,510 of the University Administrative Manual.

Wed, 23 Dec 2020 09:15:00 -0600 en-us text/html
Killexams : Welcome to Our Schools Killexams : Welcome to Our Schools
Mission StatementMessage from the Superintendent1. The BESST Reform Agenda2. General Information3. Choices for Learning4. Rights and Responsibilities

Editor's Note:
This information has been provided by the local school system. It is displayed here without editing.

To provide a quality student-centered environment that fosters maximum learning by each student, enabling each to enjoy continuous learning while becoming a productive, global citizen.Message from the Superintendent
Welcome to D.C. Public Schools. As we work to provide a quality-centered environment for all students, we are undertaking serious educational reforms. However, it is our belief that true reform cannot occur in schools until people representing all aspects of the community work together to solve the problems we face today in education.

To encourage community involvement, we support school-based management. This means allowing those individuals closest to the students -- the principals, teachers, parents, and community members -- to decide the best educational approach for students in their neighborhood schools.

In March 1994, the D.C. Board of Education officially endorsed this philosophy by approving the school system’s educational reform agenda, Bringing Educational Services to Students (BESST). In doing so, the school system embarked upon a comprehensive, systemic reform agenda designed to respond to the community’s demand for quantifiable, sustained improvement by our students and in our schools.

BESST recognizes that, internally, the school system must change the way it operates by converting from a centrally to a locally directed organization. It also reflects the idea that, externally, DCPS must form partnerships with public and private agencies and organizations to address student needs. These alliances will provide not only technical assistance and expertise in the development of educational systems, but also increased opportunities for all students.

In approving the BESST plan, the Board demonstrated its understanding that the problems facing DCPS cannot be resolved by making piecemeal changes. They must be overcome through bold, innovative steps which lead to lasting systemic reform.

Let me reinforce the point that our ability to effect positive change will be successful only with your help. "Welcome to Our Schools" is published to provide you with pertinent information. We encourage you to use it and to contact DCPS with questions, comments, or concerns about our schools. Your interest in and support for education are invaluable to us and, most importantly, to our students.

Dr. Franklin L. Smith
Superintendent of Schools
Chief State School Officer

Back to top1. The BESST Reform Agenda

Students in the District of Columbia need the skills and knowledge to compete with graduates not only from the metropolitan area, but also from around the world. They need to become quality producers, informed decision-makers, and self-directed learners. To help students achieve these outcomes, the school system has undertaken a systemic reform agenda, known as BESST (Bringing Educational Services to Students). It has five main elements:

Curriculum Revision

Technology Integration
Competency-Based Curriculum, the teaching and learning system used in DCPS since the mid-1970s, is being replaced by Performance-Based Education (PBE). PBE requires that students demonstrate what they have learned, not just through paper and pencil testing, but through more hands-on, authentic forms of assessment, such as projects, performances, products, and portfolios. With PBE, instruction becomes more rigorous and inquiry-based: Learning is connected to the real world through use of technology, community service learning, and experiences in the workplace.

Professional Development
To bring about Performance-Based Education, staff must be engaged in professional development in three critical areas:

  • using the new curriculum and focusing on content standards and foundation skills;
  • providing instruction that will engage students: cooperative learning, problem-based learning, and effective questioning strategies; and
  • applying new assessment methods with criteria that measure the level of student success.
Additionally, training focuses on creating a context for learning that emphasizes valuing the learner, understanding how children learn, and providing a caring learning environment.

Choice, Consolidation, Collaboration
Students, along with their parents and guardians, need to be able to make choices about where they attend school based upon their interests, talents, needs, and long-term goals. D.C. Public Schools is encouraging schools to design thematic programs that integrate subject areas and involve partnerships with the community. These programs may be magnets; they may serve neighborhood children; they may do both. At the high school level, these thematic programs with specialized curriculum represent pathways for students to careers.

Student Efficacy
In order to perform effectively in school, students need to be healthy; they need to feel safe and secure; and they must set goals. In collaboration with local government agencies and others, the school system is implementing a Comprehensive School Health Program; it supports conflict resolution and peer mediation training; and it is reviewing its guidance systems.

Shared Decision-Making and Accountability
Local School Restructuring Teams have been established in each school to provide teachers, parents and other members of the local community a greater say in the decisions affecting their school. In addition, schools that apply for and receive the new "Enterprise School" status and teacher-designed School-Within-a-School Charters are given additional autonomy in making both budgeting and staffing decisions. Accordingly, these schools are more accountable for the success of their students and operations.

Goals 2000
Through BESST, the school system will realize both national and local education goals by ensuring that all DCPS students:

    Enter school ready to learn;
  • Graduate from high school;
  • Leave grades 4, 8 and 12 having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter and having learned to use their minds well, so that they are prepared for responsible citizenship;
  • Have teachers who continuously Excellerate their professional skills;
  • Are first in the world in mathematics and science;
  • Become literate adults who have continuing education opportunities;
  • Learn in schools that are free of drugs and violence and that offer a disciplined environment conducive to learning;
  • Have parents who are actively involved in their children’s education; and
  • Demonstrate an appreciation for the cultural arts.
Underlying Principles
Our work is guided by certain underlying principles:
  • All students are capable of learning and there are no limits to learning.
  • The dignity of the student and respect for his/her personal circumstances, cultural and language diversity should always be affirmed. Each student learns in his/her way and at an individual pace.
  • Caring, sensitive and responsible adults heighten the student’s desire for learning and create conditions for success.
  • The school community and family must act together to support the student’s learning.
Back to top2. General Information

Entrance Requirements
Students new to the school system should register at the school they plan to attend. For further information on which school a child will attend, parents should contact the Student Services Division. Call 724-2066.

Please bring the following documents at the time of registration:

  • Proof of birth date: preferably the child’s birth certificate
  • Record of immunization: measles, mumps, rubella, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, and tuberculosis (The Department of Human Services can provide detailed information on immunizations. Call 576-7127. For health examinations and vision and hearing screening, call 576-7141.)
  • Legal proof of residence, including, but not necessarily limited to: rent receipt, proof of payment of D.C. personal income tax, unexpired lease agreement and/or all of the following bills: phone, gas, and electric
  • Record of prior school attendance: student transcript or last report card from the previous school
  • Proof of physical and dental examinations: students in grades pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, first, third, fifth, seventh, ninth, and eleventh
The Compulsory School Attendance Law of the District of Columbia requires children from age 5 up to the 18th birthday to enroll in and attend school regularly. Parents have the responsibility to comply with this legal mandate. Children entering a Montessori program, pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, or first grade must be three, four, five, or six years old respectively on or before December 31 of the year they begin school.

Excused Absences
The following are valid reasons for absence from school:

  • Illness of the student;
  • Emergency which requires the presence of the student in the home;
  • Death in the immediate family;
  • Necessity for a student to attend any judicial proceedings as a plaintiff, defendant, witness, or juror;
  • Observance of religious holy days by the members of a religious group;
  • Suspension or exclusion from school by school authorities;
  • Temporary closing of facilities or suspension of classes due to severe weather, official activities, holidays, malfunctioning equipment, unsafe, or unsanitary conditions, or other conditions requiring closing or suspension of classes;
  • Other absence(s) approved in advance by the principal upon the written request of a parent, guardian, or adult student.
  • Exclusion, by direction of the authorities of the District of Columbia, due to quarantine, contagious disease, infection, infestation, or other condition requiring separation from other students for medical or health reasons.
Written Excuses
A student is required to bring a written note from his or her parent or guardian upon returning to school from an absence. The note must state the reason for the absence and include documentation where appropriate.

Students generally attend their neighborhood school. If there is a reason why this would pose a hardship or there are other valid reasons for transferring (such as enrollment in a magnet school or academy), a request to attend another school should be made by calling 724-2066. Program application deadlines may vary from school to school.

Reporting to Parents
The schools have a responsibility to keep parents informed of the educational progress of their children. This is accomplished through a variety of ways: letters or telephone calls from teachers, parent conferences, and report cards issued every nine weeks in grades K-12. Students have the responsibility for delivering papers and other reports to their parents.

Resolving Problems
If you or your child encounter a specific problem or concern during the school year, the following steps should be taken:

  1. Contact your child’s teacher or other person with whom the problem was encountered.
  2. If the problem was not resolved in step 1, call or make an appointment with the principal.
  3. If, after talking with the principal, you feel you need further assistance, contact the Lead Principal designated for your school’s cluster.
  4. If the Lead Principal’s response is unsatisfactory, call the Ombudsman at the number below.
The Office of the Ombudsman handles problems, concerns, suggestions, and inquiries from students, parents, and the community regarding the education of students. Call 645-3620.

Pupil Services
Students having difficulty in school may receive individualized assistance provided by a pupil services team at their school. Either the student’s parents or a member of the school staff may request such services. An Individual Student Assistance Plan is developed for each of these students and implemented by the team, which may include a counselor, teacher, nurse, parent, social worker, psychologist, and speech and language pathologist. Contact your local school.

Student Government
Student government gives students a voice in the decision-making process of their education through the Student Advisory Council (SAC). The SAC includes an Upper House for secondary schools and a Lower House for elementary schools. There are thirteen citywide SAC officers. Each local school has one SAC representative and a student council/government chapter.

Students under 19 years of age needing transportation to and from school can obtain an application for reduced-fare Metrobus tokens or Metrorail farecards from their local school.

Daily bus transportation for some special needs students is provided.

Safety and Security
The school system provides safeguards for students so that they can learn and study in a hazard-free environment. To report an accident, hazardous condition, and illegal or irregular activities on the grounds of any D.C. public school building, call 645-3260 (day) or 645-3113 (evening).

Food Services
Most D.C. schools serve hot breakfasts and lunches. Many students may qualify for free or reduced-price meals, based on the size and income of the family. Contact your local school.

Visiting Instruction Service
The Visiting Instruction Service (VIS) is designed for students who are not in school due to an illness or disability which prevents regular classroom attendance. VIS services are free of charge. Call 724-6660.

Scholarships and Grants
Each year, scholarships and financial assistance are awarded to D.C. seniors who want to pursue their education or technical training beyond high school. These awards include scholarships from national sources, private and social foundations, community organizations, fraternal societies, and colleges and universities. Call 724-4934.

Title I Program
The Title 1 program provides concentrated supplementary instructional services to eligible students (eligibility based on income) in public and non-public schools in the District of Columbia. The program also emphasizes student self-esteem, professional development, and parental involvement=2E Over 15,000 students participate in the Title I program in accordance with a plan developed by a team at each eligible school. Call 541-3865.

Homeless Children and Youth
The mission of the Homeless Children and Youth Unit is to ensure free, appropriate educational opportunities for homeless children and youth and to provide technical assistance to schools, shelters, and communities. It also provides homeless parents with information and procedures necessary for enrollment in school (e.g., boundary information and educational support services). Call 727-5559.

Parents as well as community residents are encouraged to participate in the D.C. Public Schools volunteer program. Working directly with students or in a non-instructional capacity, volunteers provide services in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade and also in the area of adult education. Contact your local school.

Corporate Involvement/ Community Resources
D.C. Public Schools seeks to involve businesses and community groups in enriching the education of District students. These groups are encouraged to play a more significant role in preparing youth for the workplace through a variety of partnership activities with individual schools. Call 724-4400.

Parent Involvement
The active participation of parents in their children’s education improves the performance of both their children and their children’s schools. D.C. Public Schools encourages such parental involvement through workshops, technical assistance to schools with parent/family resource centers, school/family partnerships, and other activities. Call 541-5929.

Each school has a parent-teacher association (PTA) or a home and school association that advises the principal on family and community concerns affecting the school. The PTA’s have a citywide organization, the D.C. Congress of Parents and Teachers, which is located in the Hamilton School. Call 543-0333.

Use of DCPS Facilities
Private groups may use facilities owned by D.C. Public Schools upon approval of an application submitted to the principal of the school sought for use. Applications are available at the school. School-related organizations may generally use facilities without charge. Other organizations must pay rental fees, provide liability insurance, and pay any overtime costs associated with use of the facilities. Call 576-8961.

Sumner School
Sumner School, originally built in 1872, reopened in 1986 to rave reviews because of the attention paid to historical authenticity and detail during its renovation. The building, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, was also the site of the first, black graduating class in 1877. Sumner houses an archives and museum on public education and provides the school system and community groups with meeting rooms, reception halls and a small theater. To make an appointment for students or the public to tour the facility, call 727-3419.

Back to top3. Choices for Learning

This section lists the various educational options that are available to D.C. public school students. Entrance requirements vary among the different programs, with some programs requiring a minimum grade point average for admission. Call the number listed with each program to receive detailed information on the program and the requirements for admission.

High School Graduation Requirements
Regardless of the academic program in which a student is enrolled, each student must successfully complete 23.5 Carnegie units in order to graduate. One Carnegie unit equals two semesters of study in a particular subject. The distribution of course requirements is listed below:

Table of Contents

D.C. Public Schools
July 1996
The Mission of D.C. Public Schools
Course Carnegie Units
Art 0.5
Career/vocational education 1.0
D.C. government and history 0.5
English 4.0
Foreign language 2.0
Health and physical education 1.5*
Mathematics (including Algebra I
or its equivalent)
Music 0.5
Science (including one year of
laboratory science)
U.S. government 0.5
U.S. history 1.0
World geography 0.5
World history 1.0
Electives 4.5
100 hours of community service 0.0
Total 23.5**

* The health and physical education requirement (1.5 Carnegie units) is waived for students receiving an evening high school diploma.

** Banneker Senior High School and Duke Ellington School of the Arts students must earn 26.0 Carnegie units.

Magnet Schools

Magnet schools offer specialized curricula designed to provide students an opportunity to explore and enhance their skills, talents, and interests in various academic areas. For more information, call 724-4099 or the magnet school of choice.

Montessori Programs: D.C. Public Schools offers Montessori programs at six elementary schools for children ages three through nine. The Montessori method uses a variety of hands-on activities and stresses the learning process over specific content. Children are encouraged to function independently and form bonds among themselves.

Montessori classes are offered at the following schools:
Woodridge Elementary School
Marshall Elementary School
Merritt Elementary School
Kimball Elementary School
Nalle Elementary School
Richardson Elementary School
Watkins Elementary School

Bilingual Programs: Bilingual programs at three sites employ two languages as a medium for instruction. Children will reach content and language proficiency in both languages. The bilingual programs are offered at:

Adams Elementary School
Oyster Elementary School
International/Bilingual School-Within-a-School Charter

Brent Museum Magnet Program: Brent Elementary School collaborates with the Smithsonian Institution to enable students to explore the vast resources of the museums of the nation’s capital. In addition, students go behind the scenes to learn how to create their own museum exhibits. Call 724-4735.

Mathematics, Science, and Technology Programs: Under a grant from the National Science Foundation, D.C. Public Schools has created three prototype mathematics, science, and technology middle schools. Students with special interest or talent in these areas will be challenged to reach their potential at one of these three sites:

Backus Middle School
Lincoln Multicultural Middle School
Roper Middle School

Stuart-Hobson Museum Magnet Program: Stuart-Hobson Middle School collaborates with the Smithsonian Institution to enable students to explore the vast resources of the museums of the nation’s capital. In addition, students go behind the scenes to learn how to create their own museum exhibits. Call 724-4758.

Banneker Academic High School: Banneker offers a rigorous academic curriculum for students pursuing post-secondary education. To graduate, students must earn 26 Carnegie units and participate in the school’s Community Laboratory Project, which requires 270 hours of community service. Call 673-7322.

Ellington School of the Arts: Ellington is a college preparatory high school offering specialized pre-professional training in music, theater, dance, visual and literary media, and museum studies. Enrollment is through audition only. Call 282-0123.

School Without Walls: School Without Walls is a demanding, alternative college preparatory program that seeks to foster independence and creativity. Academic opportunities include internships, apprenticeships, and independent study, often in conjunction with the adjacent George Washington University. Call 724-4889.

Magnet Programs Within Schools

Fillmore Arts Center - Visual and Performing Arts Program: A nationally recognized model program for delivering arts education, the Fillmore Arts Center provides child-centered, in-depth arts and physical education to students from the Six School Complex (Fillmore ES, Hardy MS, Hyde ES, Key ES, Mann ES, Stoddert ES). Classes, taught by artist-teachers, are available in dance, drama, music, film, photography, visual arts and writing. Call 282-0167.

Visual and Performing Arts Program at Houston: This program develops and broadens students’ interests in the arts, strengthens and builds upon their talents, and fosters student creativity through specialized training in art, dance, drama, vocal music, and piano and other instrumental music. Call 724-4622.

Senior High Thematic Programs
Humanities at Coolidge: This is a four-year, interdisciplinary course of study in language and literature, art, music and social studies, theater, speech, journalism, and debate. The resources of area institutions, such as the Kennedy Center, Arena Stage, and the Folger Shakespeare Theater, are utilized. Call 576-6143.

Mathematics, Science, and Technology Program at Coolidge: Students who enroll in this program participate in intensive, accelerated academic study concentrating on mathematics, science, and technology with a goal of post-secondary education in those fields. The program integrates the arts so that students have well-rounded preparation and background. Call 576-6143.

Senior High Academies

The academy concept is based on the premise that students will perform better academically when the educational program relates to real world experiences. The curriculum is tailored to career fields, an approach designed to further motivate students. For more information, call 576-6308 or the school of choice.

Culinary Arts at M.M. Washington: This is a three-year program for students interested in a professional cooking career. The program focuses on culinary skills training with hands-on experiences. Call 673-2371.

Communications at McKinley: This program begins to prepare students for careers in public relations, marketing, advertising, graphic design, photography, print journalism and video production. It focuses on the development of essential communications skills as well as skills in keyboarding, word processing and computer languages. Call 576-6011.

Integrated Design and Electronics (IDEA) at Phelps: IDEA combines academic courses, leadership development, and vocational training in a program specifically designed to prepare students for post-secondary training at the University of the District of Columbia. The program is open to students enrolled in the school’s Junior Reserve Office Training Cadet (JROTC) program. Call 724-4516.

International Studies at Wilson: The international studies program offers intensive training in social studies and foreign language courses. In addition, the program provides work-study internships and possibilities for foreign exchange language study: Call 282-0120.

Law, Justice & Security at Anacostia: This academy is a consolidation of two former programs: Public Safety at McKinley Senior High School and the Academy of Justice and Security at Spingarn Senior High School. It was established to Excellerate police-community relations and recruit D.C. high school students for area law enforcement and legal positions. The Law Academy at Eastern High School operates as a satellite program. Call 645-3000.

Pre-Architecture, Interior Design, and Landscape Architecture at Spingarn: This program includes computer-assisted design and a strong business component to prepare students for careers in architecture, interior design and landscape architecture. It includes internships, field trips, and design-focused workshops. Call 724-4525.

Public Service at Anacostia: The emphasis at this academy is on local, state and national government, community and environmental awareness, and career opportunities within the government and non-profit organizations. Students develop skills that are required for entrance into a post-secondary institution and the work sector. Call 645-3000.

Teaching Professions at Coolidge: The teaching professions program is a four-year college preparatory program for students interested in careers in education. Students gain experience working with teachers in child development centers at local elementary schools. Call 576-6143.

Transportation Technology at Cardozo: The focus of this academy is pre-career training for students interested in the field of transportation technology. Oral and written communication and employability skills are emphasized. Students learn about, visit, and work in various segments of the transportation industry. Call 673-7385.

Travel and Tourism at Roosevelt: This program prepares students for advanced post-secondary studies and careers in travel and tourism, including hotel management and food and beverage management. Students receive hands-on experience through participation in conferences, industry shows, and seminars. Call 576-6130.

Specialized Training Programs

Vocational education combines skills training, knowledge and the development of appropriate traits and attitudes to prepare students to meet employer expectations and requirements.

The career-focused senior high schools in this section provide students with training programs that lead to a wide variety of careers. Students attending these senior high schools receive both vocational and academic instruction. Call 576-6308 or the school of choice.

Manufacturing and Service Industries at Bell Multicultural: Training is offered in business, home economics, manufacturing services, marketing, personal services, and entrepreneurial training (below) in a multicultural environment. Call 673-7314.

Entrepreneurial Training at Bell Multicultural: The Inter-High Connection Gift Shop at the Frank D. Reeves Center for Municipal Affairs, 14th and U Streets, N.W., is managed and operated by students who develop marketing, merchandising, entrepreneurial, and management skills. The shop specializes in floral designs, jewelry, fashions, souvenirs, and gifts. Call 328-7722.

2+2 Tech-Prep Program at Bell Multicultural and Phelps: Tech Prep is a course of study, and a joint venture between DCPS and the University of the District of Columbia, that combines technical education and college preparatory academics. It is designed to lead to an associate degree, with the option of pursuing employment or further education upon completion of the program. Programs are operational at Bell Multicultural Senior High School in computer science and electronics and at the Integrated Design and Electronics Academy at Phelps Career Senior High School. Call Bell at 673-7314 or Phelps at 724-4516.

Information Processing, Cosmetology and Computer Repair at Roosevelt: Training is offered in business, home economics, and personal services toward careers as barbers, computer repair persons, and cosmetologists. This program was formerly located at Burdick Career Development Center, which is now closed. Call 576-6130.

Business and Office Education at Spingarn: Training is offered in business-related services, manufacturing services, marketing, and personal services toward careers as cosmetologists, barbers, secretaries, entrepreneurs, and watch, shoe, and office machine repair persons. This program was formerly located at Chamberlain Senior High School, which is now closed. Call 724-4525.

Agribusiness, Construction and Transportation at Phelps: Training is offered in floriculture, agri-business, construction, and transportation for careers as greenhouse operators, landscapers, carpenters, brick masons, electricians, plumbers, draftpersons, electronic technicians, welders, and automotive repair persons. Call 724-4516.

Health Careers at M.M. Washington: Training is offered in health care, business-medical fields, and the culinary arts for careers as licensed practical nurses, dental laboratory technicians, dental assistants, nursing assistants, physical therapy aides, medical records technicians, medical clerks and secretaries, and food service workers. Applied academic courses compliment the career training courses. Call 673-7224.

Emergency Medical Services Cadet Program at M.M. Washington: This program provides training by the District’s Emergency Medical Services Unit toward becoming an emergency medical technician (EMT). Entry is limited to seniors. Following high school graduation, participants enroll full-time in the EMT training program. Call 673-7224.

School-Within-a-School Charters

School-Within-a-School Charters (SWSCs) are small, teacher-led programs utilizing a variety of innovative and thematic educational strategies. Although housed in pre-existing comprehensive schools, SWSCs are largely self-contained. These programs are a direct outgrowth of the B.E.S.S.T. educational initiative.

African-Centered SWSC: This program, housed at Webb Elementary School, offers a K - 8 program that teaches traditional curriculum content through East African classroom practices and educational principles. Call 724-3824.

International Bilingual SWSC: Learning takes on an international focus in this program that includes the study of different cultures. Central to this program is the mastery of a second language through a two-way, bilingual approach in multi-level student groupings. Call 724-2406 for the new location of this program.

Lotus Center SWSC: The program, housed at Hendley Elementary School, for grades K - 3 is based on the Soka Educational System in Japan, emphasizing hands-on methods of learning and the ability to apply lessons to real world problems. Call 645-3457.

Montessori SWSC: This program, housed at Merritt Elementary School, for primary students stresses the process of learning through individual initiative and exploration rather than a given product. Hands-on activities using specially designed materials are encouraged. Call 724-4618.

Nongraded SWSC: This PreK - 3 program, housed at Truesdell Elementary School, offers individualized and hands-on learning in multi-aged classes in which students remain for two years. Students are permitted to progress at their own pace, and parental involvement is encouraged. Call 541-3808.

PEACE Academy SWSC: This program, housed at Birney Elementary School, is for intermediate, non-graded students who have not been performing near their academic potential. Hands-on learning, critical thinking, and problem solving are encouraged. Students also maintain journals to Excellerate communication and writing skills. Call 645-3680.

Reggio Emilia Preschool SWSC: This program, housed at Peabody Elementary School, for pre-K and kindergarten students is modeled after the Reggio Emilia preschools in Italy. Each child’s time and rhythms are considered in the development of their individual identity and capabilities. Verbal skills, artistic expression, and problem solving are stressed. Call 724-4683.

Junior High
Media Technology and Social Research Academy SWSC: The curriculum for this program, housed at Kelly Miller Junior High School, promotes research and problem solving skills through collaborative projects. Students are taught how to use various types of media technology and are taught through team teaching and parental involvement. Call 724-4611.

Senior High
Business and Finance Academy SWSC: This program, housed at Woodson Senior High School, is designed to prepare students for careers in business, finance and management. Students are introduced to the field through a variety of experiences, including internships, field trips, special lectures and workshops conducted by industry personnel. Call 724-4512.

Health and Human Services Academy SWSC: This academy, housed at Eastern Senior High School, focuses on the areas of health, science, medical and human services. Students are prepared, through seminars, career fairs, job skills training, expanded curriculum and other experiences, to enter these fields immediately upon graduation from high school or to pursue post-secondary education. Participants are required to have 200 hours of community service. Call 724-8737.

Mathematics, Science and Technology Academy SWSC: This program, housed at Ballou Senior High School, provides innovative courses and an academically rigorous curriculum in mathematics, science, computer science, foreign languages and communications skills to prepare students for post-secondary education or employment upon graduation. Students participate in local and national programs and special pre-college summer programs related to coursework. Call 645-3365.

Pre-Engineering SWSC: This pre-engineering program, housed at Dunbar Senior High School, prepares students for careers in engineering, technology, and applied science by providing them with hands-on activities, technical labs and career mentors from business partners. Students participate in career-focused internships, college courses and field trips. Call 673-7233.

Alternative Instruction

D.C. Street Academy
The academy provides a second chance in an alternative academic setting for students 16 to 23 years old. Courses leading to both a high school diploma and a General Educational Development (GED) certificate are offered. Students may transfer into the academy from other schools or enroll after having previously dropped out of school. The academy also offers strong mentoring, internship, and counseling programs.

Spingarn STAY
Spingarn STAY is an alternative career and academic program offering classes between 4:00 and 10:00 p.m. It is designed for students between 16 and 21 years of age who are returning to school. In addition to regular classroom work, students receive individualized computer-assisted instruction in basic and career preparatory skills. Child care services are available. Call 724-4538.

Ballou STAY
Ballou STAY is designed for students 18 years and older who have dropped out of school. Classes toward either a high school diploma or a General Educational Development (GED) certificate are offered from 10:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. on a schedule that enables students to complete their degree in half the normal time. In addition, developmental studying and basic mathematics, as well as a variety of vocational classes, are offered. Call 645-3390.

Hamilton Midlevel Alternative School
Hamilton provides an alternative education model for non-court involved students who are 13-15 years old and over-age for their grade level. It addresses the individual needs of each student by providing techniques for social, intellectual and personal success. Students develop behavioral and academic skills that enable them to move to the next level of education and function as responsible and useful citizens. Call 724-4562.

Programs for students under court supervision or long-term suspension D.C. Public Schools has several programs, including the career diversion programs and the Educational Learning Center, that provide instruction to students under court supervision or long-term suspension from a regular DCPS academic program.

Special Programs

Special Education
Public Law 101-478, the Individuals with Disabilities Act, guarantees a "free and appropriate public education" for all children and youth with disabilities. The District of Columbia ensures that all residents with disabilities, from birth through age 21, are located, identified, and evaluated, and have available a free and appropriate public education. It is the responsibility of the D.C. Department of Human Services to provide services to children from birth to three years of age. The D.C. Public Schools provides services to individuals from ages 3 through 21.

The Special Education Branch provides assessment and evaluation of students suspected of being disabled, instructional programming and related services for special education students, and technical support and professional development for staff.

In addition to local schools, two special education centers, located at MacFarland MS and Moten ES, offer assessment and testing. These sites also house parent centers to assist parents in becoming more involved in the educational planning for children with special needs. Call 724-4800.

Language Minority Students
In compliance with Federal mandates, the Language Minority Affairs Branch provides bilingual and English as a Second Language (ESL) programs to students whose primary language is other than English. These programs, offered in over 80 elementary and secondary schools throughout the city, are designed to facilitate the transfer of concepts from one language to another while sustaining academic growth.

Staff at the Language Minority Intake Center assess and evaluate the English language proficiency of all culturally and linguistically diverse students and make appropriate recommendations. Call 576-8850.

Adult, Continuing and Community Education
A variety of programs are offered throughout the city for adults seeking to complete their education or to gain skills in a specific area. Classes and skills training programs are offered through the adult education centers, adult education evening centers, skills training programs, community schools, and community-based organizations. Community education courses vary from after-school programs for youth to adult basic education, General Educational Development (GED) certificate preparation, English as a Second Language instruction, and continuing education. Call 576-6308.

General Educational Development (GED) Certificate
The test to obtain a GED, or high school equivalency, certificate is scheduled monthly. For an application and information, call 576-6308.

Gifted and Talented Programs
Over 100 elementary, junior, and senior high schools provide specialized programs and services to students identified as gifted and talented using multiple criteria, including standardized tests of achievement, grades, nominations, and creativity. These programs recognize the multi-dimensional nature of gifted behaviors and seek to enhance intellectual ability, academic achievement, leadership skills, creative thinking, and talent in the visual and performing arts. Call 645-3200.

Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps
The Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) is active in 11 senior high schools. It seeks to motivate participants to become good citizens by developing leadership skills, scholarship, and a desire to strive for personal excellence. JROTC operates in cooperation with selected branches of the armed services. Call 645-4771.

Substance Abuse Prevention Education
The Substance Abuse Prevention Education program offers information and training in self-esteem building, violence reduction, conflict resolution, decision-making, refusal skills building, peer counseling, and related topics. The office works with students, staff, and the community. Call 724-3610.

Comprehensive School Health Program
The Comprehensive School Health Program offers information, training and classroom support for Pre-K-12 comprehensive health education with a special focus on HIV/STD and teen pregnancy prevention, nutrition education, tobacco, and reducing sedentary lifestyles. This program coordinates health services in partnership with the Commission of Public Health and works with students, families, staff, community-based organizations, and universities. Call 628-1657.

High School/College Internship Program (HI/SCIP)
HI/SCIP is an accelerated academic program in which qualified high school seniors can earn college credit while taking courses at area colleges and universities. Call 724-4185.

Advanced Placement
Advanced placement courses enable students to earn college credit while still in high school. These courses are offered at senior high schools and some career high schools. The number and type of courses vary from school to school.

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4. Rights and Responsibilities

Code of Student Responsibilities and Conduct

Each student shall be responsible for providing a positive and healthy environment for others by maintaining order, self-discipline, and having consideration for the rights and property of others.

Each student shall bear the responsibility for his or her own conduct.

Each student shall be responsible for neatness and cleanliness of personal attire and hygiene.

A student shall respect other students, teachers, administrators, and other school personnel and visitors as human beings and fellow citizens of the school community.

A student shall respect the personal property of others and refrain from causing intentional damage or unnecessary wear and tear to books, facilities, school materials, school buildings and furnishings, and the personal property of others.

A student shall refrain from fighting, creating disturbances, denying others the use of school facilities or buildings, using or carrying any weapon on school grounds, intentionally injuring another person, or acting in such a manner as to expose others to risk or danger of harm or injury.

A student shall not use threats or intimidation against any other person.

A student shall respect the health and safety of others and shall refrain from using tobacco; or using, possessing, transmitting, or being under the influence of any alcoholic beverage, narcotic substances, illegal or prohibited drug or substance; or by engaging in gambling, extortion, theft, assault, excessive noise, or any other unlawful activity.

A student shall respect the educational process and learning environment of others by refraining from intentional or habitual tardiness, unexcused absences, or other activities which diminish the rights of others and the opportunity for other students to receive an education and obtain the maximum benefit from a public education.

Corporal Punishment
The use of corporal punishment in any form is strictly prohibited in the public schools. No student shall undergo corporal punishment by any teacher, other student, administrator, or other school personnel.

Grievances may be used to address or seek redress in any of the following instances:

  • If a student or group of students is being denied access to an adequate educational opportunity;
  • If the rights of students, or any individual student, are being denied or abridged;
  • If any student or group of students is being subjected to an arbitrary and unreasonable regulation, procedure, or standard of conduct;
  • If any student is being denied participation in any school activity for which the student is eligible.

Parents may attempt to resolve grievances informally or formally. Call the Hearing Office at 724-4553.

If a student faces the possibility of a major suspension from school, the parent may suggest a hearing by contacting the Hearing Office. For a complete listing of information on minor and major suspensions, see "Chapter 25: Student Discipline" in the Rules of the Board of Education. You may receive a copy from your school or by calling 724-4276.

Access to Student Records
Each parent or guardian, student, or adult student shall have the right to inspect and review all official records, files, and data maintained by the D.C. Public Schools which relate directly to a particular student.

The right to inspect and review shall include the right to obtain copies of the information at a reasonable cost.

The school system may not charge for the cost of copying if there is no significant cost to the system or if the person wanting a copy of the records shows an inability to pay. For more information on student records, see "Chapter 26: Student Records" in the Rules of the Board of Education.

Fri, 27 May 2022 18:45:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : A competence centre for social innovation in Finland

Demos Helsinki is supporting the Finnish Ministry of Employment and Economic Affairs to build the conditions for the launch of Finland’s competence centre for social innovation in 2023.

EU increases commitment to social innovation initiatives

Social innovation is increasingly attracting the attention of the European Social Fund Plus (ESF+). With meaningful investment, countries are seeking ways to expand their social innovation expertise and practices to solve collective problems. Competence centres for social innovation are set up around the EU to strengthen the impact of social innovation. Finland’s project is coordinated by the Ministry of Employment and Economic Affairs with the support of Demos Helsinki.

The project is driven by the European Commission’s aim to further invest in social innovation. EU member states are pursuing social innovation from structures that are fragmented and with little resources for promotion. As a result, the impact of social innovations generated with EU funding has been low. Finland has a history of valuable and progressive work in the field, but the ecosystem is facing similar challenges as other countries.

Social innovation in Finland

“In Finland, we are not starting from scratch when preparing the competence centre for social innovations. One of the challenges is bringing together existing structures and processes”, says Tapani Kojonsaari, Ministerial Adviser, Minister of Economic Affairs and Employment. “Increasing the impact of social innovation requires raising the profile of social innovation. This has also been recognised by the European Commission, where a lot is happening in the field of social innovation.”

Demos Helsinki is thus building an operating model for the Finnish competence centre and creating a knowledge base on how to strengthen and nurture the national social innovation ecosystem.

As part of the project, we recently completed a report on the state, opportunities and challenges of the Finnish social innovation ecosystem (currently only in Finnish). A final report will be published in September 2022. Moreover, we have organised participatory stakeholder events for spring 2022, aiming to convene actors throughout the ecosystem.

Social innovations can provide us with the key solutions for great societal challenges. Βut, as with most innovations, they require commitment and effort. There is thus an urgent need to promote receptivity to social innovation in decision-making and construct a joint path for the actors of the social innovation ecosystem.

Want to know more?

Vera Djakonoff
Transformative Governance Expert

Finland is a member of the consortium Pan-European Social Innovation Lab (PEnCIL) which is building up national competence centres for social innovation in Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland and Lithuania. The consortium identifies the visions, needs, opportunities, and priorities of social innovation stakeholders and advocates to build a strategy and action plan specific to each country.

Feature Image: marchmeena29/iStock

Wed, 27 Jul 2022 19:27:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : CUET: Not quite a Cute route to college admissions after all

The Common University Entrance Test (CUET), introduced by the UGC for admission to UG courses, is perceived as a big blow to the CBSE and other state education boards. It is feared that the new system will totally negate the role of school education, writes Amitabh Srivastva

When we were in school, we used to play a game called ‘Hop Stop and Jump.’ But then was victory!

But the 14 lakh children who took their Class XII CBSE exams and thousands of others appearing for the 2300 schools offering the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations in India and abroad, thousands others from the various state boards holding their own exams who side-stepped, jumped over or took a bye pass from one problem to another in the last two years are not so lucky.

As if the unending trauma that saw school children trying to return to normalcy after a traumatic two-year layoff with online classes, offline attendance, abbreviated courses, objective questions changed to long answers, clearing boards without exams and some through offline exams, last minute confusion of children without vaccinations not being allowed to take exams suddenly face a vacuum as they are told that their exams results don’t matter. Not five per cent. Not even one per cent.

In order to get into the 45 Central Universities in the country they have to clear yet another test in the form of the Common University Test (CUET) whatever stream they want to get into, Science, Humanities or the most in demand Commerce.

As we are all aware the trigger for this was the cries of  ‘Marks Jihad’ raised by a political science teacher in the Kirorimal College of Delhi University last year because more than 300 students from Kerala had applied for admission to Delhi University with scores of 100 percent in various subjects in 2021.

Instead of crediting them for working hard this led to a tricky situation where colleges were forced to take as many students who had applied because they had all scored  100 per cent marks even though they did not have as many seats and teachers to tackle the rush.

Many BJP leaders had then alleged that the Kerala State Board had manipulated the marks of their State Boards which had created this problem, especially in DU.

But the charge of different states giving higher marks is not a new issue in DU which considers itself as one of the topmost University of the country. This hype for DU is no myth. The Education Ministry’s own ranking puts many colleges of DU including Hindu, St. Stephen, Miranda House, Sri Ram College of Commerce and Lady Sri Ram College in  particular as the best colleges for Arts, Commerce and Humanities in the country.

The pressure to get into DU has always been an issue that different administrators have dealt with it in different ways. If it is about Kerala Board giving higher marks today it was about Bihar not so long back.

We have also seen the embarrassing spectacle of a Bihar Board topper Ruby Rai exposed by TV channels for which she was even jailed which was a bit too much, say child rights activists.

However, earlier this principle of competitive exams was applicable only to those who wanted to get into specialised professional courses like engineering and medical education.

But now the National Testing Agency (NTA) which has been set up to conduct the CUET exams says that now admissions to all subjects across the board will be through CUET which will be conducted in 13 languages.

Many feel that admissions to DU is just an excuse to hit at the real targets, the minority institutions and the JNU which had their own system of admissions for so many years which have been working perfectly well.

But before introducing the new system the MoE ensured that they had a pliable VC in place in JNU, Dr. Santishree D Pandit, who would blindly follow the dictates of the new regime in place.

Having experienced embarrassment with VCs siding with students facing brutal lathi charge in Jamia Milia two years ago, the Akahand Bharat regime is taking no chances now.

Aligarh Muslim University tried to resist the new system by saying that it would follow the CUET system for most admissions but would reserve 15 per cent admissions through its own system. But it was told to fall in line.

In Delhi, the elite St. Stephens College which always follows its own time-table for admissions has been asking for 15 per cent admissions through interviews but has been told to follow the new system.

School principals are not so vocal about voicing their thoughts now but they are the most hurt because the new system totally negates the role of school education.

Sriram Oberoi, a retired teacher of DU and a former DUTA president was the first to bring out these fears through his posts on the social media like Facebook.

He wrote, “UGC decision to make CUET mandatory for admission to UG courses will be a big blow to the CBSE (which has worked very well for also many decades) and other State Education Boards. Their decision shows the high handedness of the New Education Policy (NEP) propagated by the present rulers. Such centralised test conducted by NTA is against the basic spirit of Indian federalism. CBSE came into existence by a Parliament Act and State Educational Boards were also constituted by relevant Acts passed by state assemblies… The NTA has not been created by parliament. It was constituted by the present government simply through a notification.”

He argues that the new system totally ignores the marks scored by children in their board exams which means that parents and children would not be bothered for the senior secondary classes and exams. They would rather engage tutors or private coaching centres to prepare their kids for CUET test. This is going to lead to privatisation and corporatisation of higher education, alleged  Oberoi.

Surprisingly, the first to welcome the CUET was Delhi Education Minister Manish Sisodia who agreed with the BJP that marks were manipulated by the State Boards (‘marks Jehad’).

Welcoming the CUET, Manish Sisodia said, “For us this is a very positive move. The competence of children in Delhi is not less than anyone else but somehow, many state boards tweak their students’ marks in the name of rescaling…now a child would be able to take admissions somewhere or the other based on their competence.”

All Delhi government schools except 31 of its Schools of Specialised Excellence are affiliated to the New Delhi Board of School Education.

Allaying the fears of students and school teachers, the UGC Chairperson, Prof Manidala Jagdesh Kumar has been telling the media that this competition will not be tough like that for IITs where the competition ratio is 1:50 but for the 45 Colleges where the chance of admissions is 1:15.

He had also clarified that the entrance test will be based strictly on the level of subjects taught in NCERT books for Class XII and fears of the need for extra coaching classes are exaggerated.

But contrary to his grandiose explanations, coaching institutes for training to clear the CUET have already sprung up.

Chaitanya, an MBA from Kolkata, who is now coaching students for MBA with a prestigious centre, says, “I agree that coaching centres have opened up for preparing for CUET. This is the first time the system has been introduced and I don’t know how this will work out. But yes there was always a problem in admissions to Delhi University where about 70 to 80 per cent students from outside (Bihar etc) were getting in while students of Delhi were getting a raw deal. This will introduce a level playing field for everyone. I remember the DU had also introduced an entrance test for admission to English (Hons) a few years ago but this had to be scrapped under political pressure.”

But at the same time, he clarified that it would be wrong to say that Board test results will not be relevant at all.

When a student is selected for an MBA course his/her Xth and XIIth mark sheets will have a lot of weightage, he pointed out.

Nawal Sharma, Head of the Prudential Education Academy in Indirapuram, Ghaziabad, who teaches Accountancy, says, “Although we are not into this CUET coaching business I feel it is important to sharpen one’s skills if one wants to excel. Some students can compete without coaching but a majority do need it. There are also differences in the courses being taught in different states. For instance in Bihar, West Bengal, UP Boards, the children have to clear both the Class XI and Class XII course for their Boards but in CBSE they are done with Class XI and have to only take the course for Class XII. Hence a CUET test will bring all at par.”

Surprisingly, opinion among school teachers on totally ignoring the board results is also sharply divided.

Even though most took this is as a personal insult to their hard work and talent, a former teacher from a prestigious school in Aligarh who spent 40 years in the profession told us,”I don’t trust the school results at all. Let me inform you that Sandeep Singh, grandson of former CM Kalyan Singh had failed in all subjects except Hindi in my school and we were under pressure to promote him but we refused. Later we were shocked to know that he finally got into one of the DPS schools and today he is a Minister in UP. But I am sure he cannot look me in the eye if we ever come face to face. So we welcome this step because it would at least  introduce some uniformity and standards in schools across the country.”

He is today Minister for Basic Education Minister in Uttar Pradesh. This is a promotion as in the earlier ministry he was minister for Primary Education, Finance and medical education.

Obviously, there are many others who are more willing to provide the new system a chance. Talking about CUET, Vijay Jolly, senior BJP leader and former DUSU President says, “Without getting much into details, my first instinctive reaction is that if a new system is being introduced where admissions will be given on merit list prepared nationally, why not? Let’s welcome it. As former president of Delhi University Students Union and having travelled across 71 countries, I feel we must provide the new system a chance because there were many fallacies in the earlier system and if this does not work, we can change it.”

Undeterred by these controversies and fears, the UGC is marching ahead with an ambition to implement it in more and more institutes.

UGC Chairman Prof M. Jagadesh Kumar has been discussing the prospects of further expanding its scope with the Vice Chancellors of various state level universities.

This includes not only state-level universities, but organisations like the Tata University of Social Science, Mumbai, and Gurukul Kangri, Haridwar, who have shown interest in being a part of CUET during discussions with the UGC, says a hand out of the UGC.

And to further expand its net the CUET plans to hold two examinations for this from 2023, it tells the hopefuls.

All the planning for future is OK. One only hopes they don’t turn every city into Kota.

Thu, 14 Jul 2022 12:23:00 -0500 Tehelka WebDesk en-US text/html
Killexams : What to Expect on the CFA Level I Exam

The Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) designation is one of the most sought-after credentials for investment professionals. However, becoming a CFA charter holder is not for the fainthearted nor the uninterested. The journey to becoming a CFA charter holder is long, and it tests not only knowledge of the subject but also endurance, diligence, and will.

According to the CFA Institute, the current program is best described as a self-study, distance-learning program that takes a generalist approach to investment analysis, valuation, and portfolio management, and emphasizes the highest ethical and professional standards. 

The CFA program consists of three exams: the CFA Level I, Level II, and Level III. CFA candidates are required to pass each of these exams and must meet certain work requirements as set out by the CFA Institute. The CFA exams are also difficult to pass; in May 2022, the passing rate for the Level I test was just 38%, compared with an average Level I pass rate of 41% for the 1963-to-May 2022 period.

The curriculum for each of these three levels is designed to test a broad array of skills considered to be most relevant for investment professions. In this article, we will focus on the CFA Level I exam.

Key Takeaways

  • The Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) designation is one of the most sought-after credentials for investment professionals.
  • The CFA program consists of three rigorous exams—CFA Level I, Level II, and Level III—that candidates must pass. In order to receive the CFA charter, candidates must also meet certain work requirements set out by CFA Institute.
  • The passing rate for the CFA Level I Exam, which consists of 180 multiple choice questions split between two 135-minute sessions, was 38% in May 2022, compared with an average Level 1 pass rate of 41% for the 1963-to-May 2022 period.
  • The CFA Level 1 test tests knowledge in 10 different sections, including ethical and professional standards, quantitative methods, economics, portfolio management, and asset classes.

CFA Level 1 test Structure

The test is a computer-based test split between two 135-minute sessions. The test consists of 180 multiple-choice questions: 90 questions in the first session and 90 questions in the second session. Candidates should allow approximately 90 seconds per question, depending on their knowledge of the topics.

All of the multiple-choice questions are free-standing (i.e., they are not dependent on each other). For each question, three possible choices are provided. The questions are crafted intelligently, such that the incorrect choices reflect common mistakes in calculation or logic. Candidates should aim to answer all questions, as there is no penalty for incorrect answers.

Additionally, it is essential to become comfortable with calculator functions, as these features will be needed to complete some of the questions.

Exam Curriculum

The test focuses on basic knowledge and comprehension of tools and concepts of investment valuation and portfolio management. The curriculum consists of 10 Topic areas that cover key subjects including ethical and professional standards, investment tools, asset classes, and portfolio management and wealth planning.

The following table provides the approximate weights of these Topic areas for the 2022 Level I exam.

2022 CFA Level I test subjects and Weights
Topic Exam Weight
Ethical and Professional Standards 15-20%
Quantitative Methods 8-12%
Economics 8-12%
Financial Reporting and Analysis 13-17%
Corporate Issuers 8-12%
Portfolio Management 5-8%
Equity Investments 10-12%
Fixed Income 10-12%
Derivatives  5-8%
Alternative Investments 5-8%

Source: CFA Institute.

Ethics and professional standards

This section covers the code of ethics, professional standards, and the Global Investment Performance Standards (GIPS). There are approximately 27 to 36 questions on the subject, and the Institute itself takes this section very seriously. If scores are low or close to the minimum passing score on all other topics, then the score on this section could determine whether a candidate passes or fails. One advantage of studying ethics well is that it also helps with Level II and Level III test preparation.

Quantitative methods

While ethics is more scenario-oriented and easy to follow, the quantitative methods section could be intimidating for some students. A Ph.D. in mathematics is not necessary to do well in quantitative methods, but having a background in statistics will certainly be helpful. An 8%-to-12% weight means that candidates should expect anywhere from 15 to 22 questions on quantitative methods. The subjects covered are geared toward providing knowledge of analytical tools and techniques that are essential for financial analysis and investment decision-making.

The key subjects covered are the time value of money and discounted cash flow analysis, which form the basis for security and asset valuation; descriptive statistics that convey important data attributes, and characteristics of return distributions; and probability theory and its application to quantifying risk in investment decision making.


The economics section tests knowledge of basic micro and macroeconomic concepts. These include supply and demand analysis; various market structures such as oligopoly and monopoly; aggregate output, prices, and economic growth; and business cycles and their effect on economic activity. Economics comprises between 8% to 12% of the Level I exam.

Financial reporting and analysis

This is the second-largest section on the Level I exam, with a 13%-to-17% weight. Financial reporting and analysis have only a slightly lower weight for the Level II course, so it's important to spend enough time studying this area to build a solid foundation for subsequent exams.

Candidates will be asked to analyze and interpret primary financial statements (balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement), know the ratios, and many other advanced concepts such as revenue recognition, inventory analysis, long-term assets, and taxes.

Since the test is a global exam, it does not cover local accounting practices. The focus is more on widely accepted standards, such as U.S. GAAP and IFRS.

Corporate issuers

After financial reporting and analysis is the section on corporate finance, which has an 8%-to-12% weight in the Level I exam. It provides an introduction to corporate governance, as well as investing and financing decisions. This subject area also highlights the growing impact of environmental and social considerations in investing. Key subjects include capital budgeting, cost of capital, leverage, and working capital management.

Portfolio management

The Level I test only introduces the basics of portfolio management. The important concepts are the Modern Portfolio Theory and the Capital Asset Pricing Model. There are between 9 and 15 questions in this section, which acts as preparation for Levels II and III, where the focus is more on the application of knowledge on portfolio management.

Equity investments

The section on equities covers equity markets and instruments, as well as tools and techniques for valuing companies. Candidates should pay close attention to this section because it lays the foundation for further study in Levels II and III. Approximately 10% to 12% of the questions on the Level I test are on equities, and the majority of the questions are focused on valuing and analyzing companies.

Fixed income

After equities, the test next deals with fixed-income markets and their instruments. Candidates are required to understand the characteristics of various fixed-income securities and how to price them. Some important concepts are the yield measures and duration and convexity. This section also discusses structured products, such as mortgage-backed securities and collateralized mortgage obligations, among others. Questions on fixed income comprise 10% to 12% of the exam.


Similar to portfolio management, derivatives are only introduced in Level I. Candidates will be tested on the basics of futures, forwards, swaps, options, and hedging techniques using these derivatives. Similar to portfolio management, this section only has a 5%-to-8% weight in the Level I exam, which equates to between 9 and 15 questions.

Alternative investments

This section focuses on alternative investments including real estate, private equity, hedge funds, infrastructure, and commodities. The Level I curriculum for alternative investments is of an introductory nature, with a 5%-to-8% test weight, so expect between 9 and 15 questions. Given the growing importance of this asset class in latest periods, and the fact that it has a slightly higher weight in Levels II and III, candidates should treat this section seriously.

Test-Taking Tips on test Day

All CFA exams are now administered through computer-based testing at proctored test centers in over 400 locations globally. The test centers have tight security measures in place, and each center closely monitors candidates to detect any form of cheating. The CFA Institute offers the following test-taking tips for CFA Level I test Day:

  • Be comfortable with your calculator's features, and ensure you know how to use them to address the learning outcome statements. Permitted calculators are either the Texas Instruments BA II Plus or the Hewlett Packard 12C.
  • Exam questions referring to financial reporting and analysis are based on IFRS unless otherwise specified. If U.S. GAAP is used, this will be stated in the question.
  • Answer all questions, since there is no penalty for incorrect answers.
  • While there is no dress code for the exams, dress in layered clothing for comfort.

Is there a break between Session 1 and Session 2 of the CFA Level 1 exam?

There is an optional break of 30 minutes between Session 1 and Session 2.

How much study time do I need for the Level I exam?

According to CFA Institute, the average successful candidate reported spending 303 hours studying for the Level I test offered in June 2019.

If I do not pass the CFA Level I Exam, how long do I have to wait before I can retake it?

Beginning in 2021, every candidate who does not pass their test will have to wait for a minimum of six months to retake it.

The Bottom Line

Overall, the CFA Level I test is well balanced, with a wide spectrum of topics. Some subjects may require proportionally more time to study than others; however, what's important is to create a study plan and stay with it.

Wed, 24 Nov 2021 01:33:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Minister says value of qualifications must be maintained as test grades to fall

Education minister Will Quince said qualifications must “maintain their value” (Gareth Fuller/PA) (PA Wire)

Education minister Will Quince said the country must return to a position where qualifications “maintain their value” as he spoke about how test grades are expected to fall this year.

The Government says very few schools and colleges will get better results than in 2021 when grades were awarded by teacher assessment due to the Covid-19 pandemic.

It comes after students sat GCSE, AS and A level exams for the first time since 2019, with grades set to drop this summer, and then again in 2023, as part of a transition back to pre-pandemic arrangements.

I think it's important stress that grades this year will still be higher than 2019

Will Quince

In an interview with the PA news agency, Mr Quince said: “Over the past of couple years, we’ve had extraordinary times because of the pandemic and we’ve had to take extraordinary steps, quite exceptional steps, which have led to higher grades.”

But he added: “Actually what young people and universities and employers are telling us (is) that exams are the best and fairest method for assessment and that it’s really important that we move back as quickly as possible to a position where qualifications maintain their value and that’s really important for employers and universities.”

To mitigate the potential loss of learning over the pandemic, Mr Quince said this year’s exams have had “a number of adaptions to make it fairer and to reflect the disruption that young people have faced”.

These include giving students advance information on the content of some exams, a choice on which questions students could answer and carefully spaced timetables as well as reducing work experience hours on vocational qualifications.

Asked how the Government will manage students’ disappointment at getting lower grades this year, the education minister said: “I think it’s important stress that grades this year will still be higher than 2019, so pre-pandemic,” due to the adaptations put in place.

Mr Quince also said that “universities will adjust accordingly” to the lower grades.

He then argued that students missing the grades that they were predicted or hoped for “is not something new”.

“That’s why it’s really important that young people recognise and know that there are loads of options open to you,” he said.

“You may still get into the university that was your first choice, you may go through clearing or go to another university – that’s why it’s really important to have a Plan B.

“You might go down a vocational route or an apprenticeship or you may even decide to go straight into the world of work.”

The minister also addressed concerns that the attainment gap between disadvantaged students and their peers will grow this year.

He said: “There’s no question that over the course of the pandemic, young people have faced huge disruption and that has had an impact.”

Measures such as the £5 billion recovery package for education, the National Tutoring Programme and an extra one hour a week in education for 16 to 19-year-olds are “reflecting the fact that we want to make sure we are closing that attainment gap”, he said.

Will Quince (UK Parliament/PA) (PA Media)

Elsewhere, staff at the country’s largest test board AQA have announced a second walkout from August 12 to 15, sparking fears that results will be disrupted.

Mr Quince criticised the “scaremongering” from unions, saying: “I think young people have enough to worry about and be concerned about, ahead of examination results anyway.

“To add this into the mix as a potential worry about whether their papers will be marked and their results will come through on time is totally unnecessary.

“I’ve had assurance that they won’t have any impact but unfortunately scaremongering of this sort of nature by unions is deeply regrettable.”

Moving on to the Tory leadership race, Mr Quince spoke about the “toxicity” between rival camps during the contest, in which he is backing former chancellor Rishi Sunak for his “competence”, “delivery” and “pragmatism”.

“In terms of the toxicity, inevitably there are clashes among the individual camps – that’s regrettable and to some extent, it’s a bit unedifying and that’s the aspect I don’t like,” he said.

But he also said the leadership race has triggered debate over policies during a difficult period for the country, adding: “Actually talking about renewal in government, about new policies and new ideas, can only be a good thing.”

Asked why he quickly returned to government after resigning his post in protest over Boris Johnson’s leadership, Mr Quince said he was offered the role for the interim period until there was a new prime minister in place.

He added: “Although I did have to think about it for a little while, for me there’s a huge sense of duty that we’ve got to ensure that some of these really big key important policy agenda items – so things like, of course, school examinations, the Schools White Paper, the Independent Review Into Children’s Social Care, the Family Hubs rollout, the Send review (for) which the consultation closed on July 27 – continued until the new prime minister was in place.”

Sun, 07 Aug 2022 11:01:00 -0500 en-CA text/html
Killexams : CBSE, CISCE Term 2 2022 LIVE: Latest updates on board exams
  • May 07, 2022 09:03 AM IST

    CBSE Class 10, Class 12 board exams: Guidelines for students

    1. Reach the test venue well ahead of time.
    2. Bring a copy of the admit card. 
    3. Before attempting the paper, read the instructions mentioned on it. 
    4. Write centre code, roll number and any other details on the space provided for it. 
    5. Leave enough time for revision at the end.
  • May 07, 2022 08:44 AM IST

    CBSE term 2 paper timings

    Class 12 and Class 10 CBSE papers will begin at 10:30 am and end at 12:30 pm. The duration of the test is 2 hours.

  • May 07, 2022 08:30 AM IST

    CBSE Class 12 Chemistry question pattern for term 2

    As per the sample paper, there will be 12 questions in the question paper with internal choice, divided into 3 sections.

    Section A: Questions 1 to 3, very short answer type questions, 2 marks each.

    Section B: Questions 4-11, short answer type questions, 3 marks each. 

    Section C: Question no. 12, case based, 5 marks. 

    All questions will be compulsory. Maximum marks in the theory paper is 35. 

  • May 07, 2022 08:20 AM IST

    CBSE Class 12 Chemistry term 2: Log tables

    During the CBSE Class 12 Chemistry examination, candidates are not allowed to use log tables, as per instructions given in the sample question paper.

  • May 07, 2022 08:18 AM IST

    CBSE Class 10 Sanskrit sample paper

    Students can visit the CBSE academic website – to download sample question paper of Class 10 Sanskrit. 

  • May 07, 2022 08:02 AM IST

    CBSE Class 12 Chemistry test 2022: sample papers and more

    Students who will appear for the CBSE Class 12 Chemistry paper can visit to download sample questions, question bank, syllabus and marking scheme. 

  • May 07, 2022 07:53 AM IST

    ICSE, ISC term 2 test 2022: COVID-19 instructions

    Candidates will have to undergo mandatory thermal scanning before entering the test hall. Here are some general instructions for them:

    1. Wear masks at all the times. 
    2. Carry your own water bottle. Do not share it with others. 
    3. Do not stand in groups. Maintain social distancing. 
    4. Do not share utensils like calculator, pen or pencil with others. 
  • May 07, 2022 07:41 AM IST

    CBSE, ISC term 2 test 2022 live updates

    CBSE, CISCE exams scheduled for May 7: 

    CBSE Class 10 Sanskrit

    CBSE Class 12 Chemistry

    ISC Mass Media & Communication and Fashion Designing - Paper 1

    ICSE: No exam

  • May 06, 2022 05:38 PM IST

    CISCE Class 10 Hindi Term 2 Paper: Reviews by Principals 

    Senior principal Jyoti Kashyap and principal, Shivani Singh said that the students looked satisfied as they came out of the examination hall .They reported that they were happy to see the overall positive response of the students because it would be a motivating factor for them to upgrade their overall percentage.

  • May 06, 2022 05:33 PM IST

    ICSE 10th Hindi test 2022: Know Teachers review 

    Three Hindi teachers- Rachna Singh, Shipra Srivastava and Kanchan Khare said that most of the  topics were covered in their Pre board exam, but it was a time taking paper.

  • May 06, 2022 05:29 PM IST

    CISCE Class 10 Hindi Paper: A thought provoking question paper 

    Many students who appeared in the test were of the view that it was a standard question paper and most of the questions were set within the scope of the syllabus. However, no direct questions were asked and it was a thought provoking question paper.

  • May 06, 2022 05:26 PM IST

    ICSE Hindi test 2022: What students of Lucknow said 

    Students of Lucknow felt that the ICSE Hindi question paper very lengthy. Students of City Montessori School , Aliganj campus 1 said they were barely able to complete the paper on time.

    As per some students more time was required because the paper consisted of both Language and Literature part. 

  • May 06, 2022 04:09 PM IST

    CBSE class 12th sociology test analysis

    Debjani Banerjee, HOD Psychology, Sociology and Home Science, Shiv Nadar School, Gurugram said, “ The questions were predictable but mostly application based. There were direct questions in four and six markers, whereas the short answer questions were all inference based. Special designated marks were given for examples, which is a first. This will help students to use a case-study based approach to justify a concept. Overall, the paper was very good, and students were very happy.”

  • May 06, 2022 03:27 PM IST

    CBSE class 10th term 2 exam: Sanskrit test sample question paper

    Candidates who will appear for the CBSE class 10th Sanskrit examination can download the sample question paper from here

  • May 06, 2022 03:15 PM IST

    CBSE class 10 term 2 exam: Sanskrit test tomorrow

    The Central Board of Secondary Education, or CBSE, will hold a Sanskrit test for Class 10 term 2 tomorrow, May 7, 2022.

  • May 06, 2022 01:42 PM IST

    CBSE class 12th Sociology exam: Students reaction

    Harsh Vardhan, a student at Government Model Senior Secondary School said, "The test was along expected lines and easy. I was able to finish it before the time was up."

  • May 06, 2022 01:39 PM IST

    CBSE  held a sociology test for Class 12 students

    CBSE conducted sociology test for Class 12 and students said that the test was easy and the questions were straightforward.

  • May 06, 2022 01:35 PM IST

    CISE ICSE examination: St Stephen's student's reaction

    Mithali, St Stephen's student, found the questions easy but completed the paper on time. "The paper was definitely easy for all and quite easy as per the ICSE standards," said Blessy Alex, a resident of Zirakpur and a student at the same school.

  • May 06, 2022 01:31 PM IST

    CISCE class 10th or ICSE Hindi exam

    Joshia Alexander, a student of St. Stephen's school, Sector 45, Chandigarh said, "My test went well as the paper was very easy, I completed it well in time."

  • May 06, 2022 01:28 PM IST

    CISCE class 10th Hindi examination: Students reaction

    The class ten students of ICSE board were happy with their Hindi test on Friday. They found the paper to be inclusive of all the syllabus that had prepared for.

  • May 06, 2022 01:24 PM IST

    CBSE term 2 class 12th exam: Sociology test pattern

    The paper had Section A, B, C, D

    Section A- Questions 1–2 were one-mark source-based questions. 

     Section B- Questions 3–9 were two-mark questions. These are really short-answer questions. 

    Section C- Questions 10-12 were four-mark questions. These are short-answer questions. 

    Section D- Questions 13 and 14 are six-pointers. These are long-answer questions. 

  • May 06, 2022 01:20 PM IST

    CBSE term 2 class 12th examination: Sociology test was held today

    The CBSE class 12th Sociology question paper had 14 questions and all

    questions were compulsory.

  • May 06, 2022 01:17 PM IST

    CBSE term 2 Class 12th chemistry test pattern

    1. There are 12 questions in this question paper with internal choice.

    2. SECTION A - Q. No. 1 to 3 will be very short answer questions carrying 2 marks each.

    3. SECTION B - Q. No. 4 to 11 will be short answer questions carrying 3 marks each.

    4. SECTION C- Q. No. 12 will be case based question carrying 5 marks.

  • May 06, 2022 01:14 PM IST

    CBSE term 2 class 12th examination tomorrow 

    The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) term 2 Class 12 Chemistry paper will be held tomorrow, May 7, 2022. Candidates who will appear for the examination can check the sample question paper here

  • May 06, 2022 01:11 PM IST

    CBSE Class 10th exam: Math examination was held yesterday

    CBSE Class 10 Maths test Term 2 2022: On Thursday, May 5, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) conducted the Class 10 mathematics examinations.

  • May 06, 2022 01:01 PM IST

    CBSE term 2 class 10th examination: sample paper here

    Candidates can check the CBSE Class 10th term 2 examination sample paper here.

  • May 06, 2022 01:00 PM IST

    CBSE term 2 class 12th examination: sample paper here

    Candidates can check the CBSE class 12th sample paper here.

  • May 06, 2022 12:57 PM IST

    CBSE term 2 examination: Answer key to release after the exam

    After the end of term 2 exams in 2022, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is expected to issue the Answer Key for all courses in Class 10 and Class 12.

  • May 06, 2022 12:54 PM IST

    CBSE Class 12th Term 2 examination: Chemistry test to held tomorrow

    The term 2 Class 12 Chemistry paper for the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) will be held tomorrow, May 7, 2022.

  • May 06, 2022 12:46 PM IST

    CISCE ICSE or class 10th examination: Hindi test was conducted today

    The Class 10 or ICSE Hindi examination was conducted by CISCE. The examination began at 11 a.m. and lasted one and a half hours.

  • May 06, 2022 12:45 PM IST

    CBSE Sociology test ended

    Central Board of Secondary Education conducted the class 12th sociology test today. The examination was commenced at 10: 30 am and ended at 12: 30 pm.

  • May 06, 2022 12:07 PM IST

    CBSE Term 2 examination: Proper arrangements are made to avoid spread of COVID

    The board has spent 5000 and 5 per candidate each day for the examination day to make necessary precautions to prevent the spread of COVID.

  • May 06, 2022 11:07 AM IST

    ICSE Hindi test today: Examination guideline

    On the top-sheet of the Standard Answer Booklet, you are to put your signature in the space provided for the purpose. Do NOT write or scribble anywhere on the top-sheet.

    Clearly write your UID (Unique Identification Number), Index Number and Subject on the top-sheet of the Standard Answer Booklet in the space provided

  • May 06, 2022 10:09 AM IST

    CBSE class 12th sociology exam

    The CBSE class 12th term 2 sociology examination will begin in half an hour. The duration of the examination will be 2 hours.

  • May 06, 2022 09:43 AM IST

    CBSE class 12th term 2 examination: 14,54,370 students registered for class 12

    The CBSE term 2 test for Class 12 is being held at 6,720 centres in the country  There are 14,54,370 Class 12 students who have registered for the term 2 Class 12 examinations.

  • May 06, 2022 09:05 AM IST

    CBSE class 12th sociology test today

    According to the CBSE test guidelines, candidates must wear a mask that covers their nose, mouth, and nose. Students taking the CBSE term 2 examinations must adhere to social distance standards.

  • May 06, 2022 09:04 AM IST

    CISCE Hindi exam: test will last for 1 hour 30 min

    The ICSE Hind examinations in semester 2 will last 1 hour 30 minutes and will be worth 40 marks.

  • May 06, 2022 07:57 AM IST

    CBSE Class 12th examination

    The CBSE class 12th term 2 sociology test will begin at 10: 30 am and the test will end at 12: 30 pm.

  • May 06, 2022 07:46 AM IST

    CISCE ICSE: Hindi test to beging at 11 am

    Central Board of Secondary Education will begin the Hindi examination at 11 am. The duration of the examination will be one and a half hour.

  • May 05, 2022 08:37 PM IST

    CISCE ISC economics Sem 2 test 2022: Students provide mixed response

    The students of ISC class 12 gave a mixed response to the Economics test on Thursday in Chandigarh. Akanksha Kumari of St. Xaviers Senior Secondary School, Sector 44-C, Chandigarh said, "The paper was easy for me and I completed it well in time and had some time left to revise my answers as well."

    While Simrat Chahal from Mohali of St. Xaviers found the test to be tougher than other boards, "Some subjects came in the test which I was not prepared for."

    Also, Ayushi Rahar, a resident of Panchkula of the same school said, "The question paper was not proportionately divided but not lengthy as well. There were conceptual questions which other students also found hard to attempt." Major questions were from chapters like National Income and Money banking in the paper.

  • May 05, 2022 08:31 PM IST

    CBSE Class 10 maths paper: Students say test was smooth sailing for them

    Most of the students who took the maths test in Chandigarh said it was smooth sailing for them. “The paper was easy but time-consuming,” said Jyoti of Govt Model Senior Secondary School, Dhanas, Chandigarh. Students who had taken the test looked in a jovial mood outside the school.  Another student, Chandrapal said that the circle question was a little difficult, and the rest of the test was smooth sailing.

  • May 05, 2022 05:51 PM IST

    CBSE Class 12 test tomorrow: Sociology

    CBSE Class 12 test is Sociology paper. The examination for Class 12 will be conducted 10.30 am to 12.30 pm across the country at various test centres. 

  • May 05, 2022 04:58 PM IST

    ISC Economics Paper: What student from Tripura said 

    Akanksha Debnath, ISC student of Holy Cross School in Agartala said that her Economics paper was good. Maximum questions came from the textbooks. She had prepared from other reference books as well apart from the textbooks. 

  • May 05, 2022 04:36 PM IST

    CBSE Class 10 Exams 2022: Maths paper over, check which papers tomorrow 

    CBSE Class 10 test 2022 Mathematics paper is over. On May 6, CBSE will conduct Sindhi, Malayalam, Odia, Assamese and Kannada papers. The exams will begin at 10.30 am to 12 noon.

  • May 05, 2022 04:04 PM IST

    CBSE Class 10 Term 2 Maths Exam: Some more students review 

    Agrim Verma of GD Goenka Public School is expecting to score full marks in CBSE Class 10 Term 2 Maths Exam. According to him, the paper was a standard one and quite easy for those students who have practiced through the sample papers.

    For Gargi Dwivedi, student of the same school, the paper was of medium difficulty level and year long practice has come very handy in attempting the paper and completing it on time.

  • May 05, 2022 03:57 PM IST

    CBSE 10th Maths Paper 2022: Reviews by students of LPS South City

    Vaishnavi Singh of Lucknow Public School South City said that the paper was lengthy. She was able to attempt all the questions with good practice. 

    Ujjwal Dwivedi of LPS South City said overall paper was easy but a few questions based on competency skills took a lot of time, although these questions were very conceptual.

  • May 05, 2022 03:48 PM IST

    CBSE Class 10 Term 2 Maths Exam: Basic maths paper easy than Standard Maths 

    Dhruv Sawhney of GD Goenka Public School found the basis paper to be comparatively easier that the standard Mathematics paper. Most of the question paper was NCERT based. 

  • May 05, 2022 03:42 PM IST

    CBSE 10th Maths Paper 2022: Review by Shiv Nadar School teacher 

    According to Ankita Ahuja Sharma, PGT Mathematics, Shiv Nadar School, Gurugram, the students did not face any issues w.r.t time management and they all could complete the paper within the stipulated time. All questions were doable and similar to the sample papers practiced in class. Overall, all students were happy and satisfied with the paper.

  • May 05, 2022 03:35 PM IST

    CBSE Mathematics Exam: What GD Goenka Public School student said 

    A student of Class 10B from GD Goenka Public School, Diya Goel said that she was not very happy with her attempt as there were some tricky questions and interpretation of those were different for different students.

  • May 05, 2022 03:28 PM IST

    CBSE 10th Mathematics Paper: Mixed response of students 

    CBSE 10th Mathematics paper concluded today. Students who appeared for the test gave a mixed response after writing the examination. While some students felt the paper was tricky, some found the paper to be very lengthy and few questions not as per the standard format. 

  • May 05, 2022 02:34 PM IST

    CBSE Class 12 math paper: ‘Standard math paper was difficult’

    Vashvinder, HOD, MRG School Rohini said Mathematics paper was easy for many students, but little lengthy. Few questions were easy but were really time consuming to write step-by-step answers. All the questions were as per the syllabus and were on the expected lines of the students. Overal, paper was lengthy and of moderate difficulty level. 2 marks questions in Section A were easy but it would have taken much time for students to write the step-wise solutions. Section B with 3 marks questions had 1-2 questions that have troubled some students. Case studies in Section C were easy and could be easily solved with a thorough conceptual understanding. The basic paper was way easier than the standard paper.

    Students with Standard Maths, on the other side, did not seem to be happy with the paper. Majority of the students claimed it was a difficult paper as they were not expecting this level in term 2 as they were going to write the subjective test for the first time in last two years. However, there were some students who said the paper was moderately difficult but one could attempt it well with good knowledge of NCERT.

    The ‘Basic Mathematics” section was straight as per NCERT pattern and students did not find it tough. As for the “Standard Mathematics” part, the questions were of above-average toughness as it should be for students wishing to pursue Mathematics in the questions were as per the syllabus only and were on the expected lines.

  • May 05, 2022 02:25 PM IST

    CBSE Term 2 10th Mathematics Exam: Standard and Basic paper conducted today 

    CBSE Term 2 10th Mathematics test for Standard and Basic paper have been conducted. The Board started the paper at 10.30 am and ended the paper at 12 noon. The examination was conducted offline by following all COVID19 guidelines. 

  • May 05, 2022 02:19 PM IST

    CBSE Class 10 Maths paper: Review by another student 

    Jai Mishra, a class 10 student of Prayagrag Public School, Lalgopalganj in Prayagraj who had opted for “Basic Mathematics” said that he found the questions in his section of the question paper to be easy and scoring. “I should get good marks,” he added.

  • May 05, 2022 02:10 PM IST

    CBSE 10th Term 2 Mathematics paper: Another student's review 

    Shashank Shukla, student of Prayagrag Public School, Lalgopalganj in Prayagraj who too had opted “Standard Mathematics” for the test found the overall level of toughness of the questions asked to be good and not too tough. He also did not find the question paper to be lengthy in any way. 

  • May 05, 2022 02:05 PM IST

    CBSE Class 10 Maths paper: test was conducted by following all COVID19 guidelines 

    CBSE class 10 maths paper was easy and scoring for students who appeared for the exam. The Board conducted the examination by following all the COVID19 guidelines like maintaining social distancing norms, use of sanitisers and masks. 

  • May 05, 2022 01:57 PM IST

    CBSE 10th Mathematics Exam: Paper was scoring and easy 

    CBSE 10th Mathematics test paper was scoring and easy. The overall review of students who have appeared for in today's Mathematics examination was that the question paper was easy but lengthy for some. 

  • May 05, 2022 01:42 PM IST

    ISC Economics test 2022: Paper pattern 

    The ISC Economics paper will comprise of two papers- Paper I and Paper II. Paper I will be theory test comprising of 80 marks question. The test duration is for 1.30 minutes and Paper II will comprise of Project work of 20 marks. In Paper I, 20 marks question will be compulsory to attend and 60 marks will consist of 8 questions out of which students will have to answer 5 questions.

  • May 05, 2022 01:36 PM IST

    CBSE Class 10 test 2022 on May 6: Check papers 

    CBSE Class 10 test 2022 on May 6 are Sindhi, Malayalam, Odia, Assamese and Kannada. The exams will begin at 10.30 am to 12 noon. 

  • May 05, 2022 01:29 PM IST

    Students reaction on CBSE Class 10 Maths Paper 

    Students who appeared for CBSE Class 10 Maths Paper said that all the questions that he attempted along with the choices given were easy for anyone who had practiced different types of questions before the exams as part of his or her preparation. 

  • May 05, 2022 01:26 PM IST

    ISC Class 12 Economics Paper 2022 today 

    Only half an hour to go for ISC Class 12 Economics Paper 2022. The Class 12 examination will begin at 2 pm and will end at 3.30 pm. Candidates will get the question paper at 1.50 pm and 10 minutes time will be given for studying the question paper. 

  • May 05, 2022 01:23 PM IST

    CBSE Class 10 Mathematics Exam: Know Maths teacher review 

    CBSE Class 10 Mathematics test concluded. Mathematics teacher of Ganga Gurukulam, Phaphamau in Prayagraj Devesh Singh have said that the questions that was asked were fully from within the syllabus. 

    “The ‘Basic Mathematics” section was straight as per NCERT pattern and students did not find it tough. As for the “Standard Mathematics” part, the questions were of above-average toughness as it should be for students wishing to pursue Mathematics in higher classes later on. Any student who had worked upon his concepts would have done well in it,” he said.

  • May 05, 2022 01:18 PM IST

    CBSE Mathematics Exam: Paper was scoring, but lengthy

    Students who appeared for CBSE Mathematics test for Class 10 found the question paper to be scoring but lengthy. Deva Pandey, a high school student of Prayagrag Public School, Lalgopalganj in Prayagraj said that his test went well. Many of his classmates found the question paper to be easy. 

  • May 05, 2022 12:59 PM IST

    CBSE Class 10 Mathematics Paper: Students review here 

    Aashika Thakur, Class 10 student of Geeta Bal Bharti, Delhi school said that today's Mathematics paper was quite easy, but little lengthy. A few questions were easy but were really time consuming to write step-by-step answers. All the questions were as per the syllabus only and were on the expected lines.

  • May 05, 2022 12:47 PM IST

    ISC Economics test 2022: One hour to go

    ISC Economics test 2022 will begin at 2 pm across the country at various test centres. Only one hour to go for the test to begin. Students will have to reach the venue 30 minutes before examination commences. The question paper will be distributed to students at 1.50 pm. 

  • May 05, 2022 12:32 PM IST

    CBSE Mathematics paper for Class 10: Students reaction soon 

    CBSE Mathematics paper for Class 10 have just concluded. The students who have appeared for the examination are coming out of the examination hall. The students reaction, review on question paper will be available soon. 

  • May 05, 2022 12:21 PM IST

    CISCE test 2022: Guidelines 

    Candidates must reach the examination centre ahead of time to ensure staggered movement and smooth entry to avoid overcrowding.

    An additional 10 minutes will be provided to the students for studying the question paper. The students will not be allowed to write during this additional time span.

    Candidates will have to maintain social distancing in their movement from the main school gate to the examination hall. All have to use face masks/ cover and carry their own hand sanitisers.

    Students should carry their admit card to the examination hall to appear for the examination.

    All the appearing candidates will have to bring their own writing stationery and avoid sharing the same with other candidates.

  • May 05, 2022 12:10 PM IST

    ISC Economics test 2022: Begins at 2 pm 

    ISC Economics test 2022 will begin at 2 pm today, May 5, 2022. The examination will be conducted from 2 pm to 3.30 pm. The ISC Economics paper will comprise of two papers- Paper I and Paper II. Paper I will be theory test comprising of 80 marks question. Paper II will comprise of Project work of 20 marks.

  • May 05, 2022 12:00 PM IST

    CBSE Class 10 Maths paper concludes 

    CBSE Class 10 Maths paper concludes. The Class 10 mathematics test across the country at various test centres was started at 10.30 am and ended at 12 noon. The students reaction and review on question paper is yet to come. 

  • May 05, 2022 11:42 AM IST

    ISC Term 2 Exams 2022: COVID19 precautions to be taken 

    Candidates will have to maintain social distancing in their movement from the main school gate to the examination hall. All have to use face masks/ cover and carry their own hand sanitisers.

  • May 05, 2022 11:20 AM IST

    CBSE Class 10 Mathematics test to conclude soon 

    CBSE Class 10 Mathematics test will conclude soon. The duration of Maths papers will be 2 hours. As per the time table, the exams will be conducted from 10:30 am to 12 pm.

  • May 05, 2022 11:05 AM IST

    CISCE ISC test 2022: Students to get 10 minutes extra time 

    Students will get an additional 10 minutes time to students for studying the question paper. The students will not be allowed to write during this additional time span. 

  • May 05, 2022 10:50 AM IST

    ISC Class 12 Exam: Economics paper today 

    Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations, CISCE will conduct ISC Term 2 Economics test 2022 on May 5, 2022. The Class 12 or ISC Economics paper examination will begin at 2 pm and will end at 3.30 pm. 

  • May 05, 2022 10:16 AM IST

    CBSE Class 12 Exams 2022: No paper today 

    There is no paper for CBSE Class 12 Exams 2022. The Class 12 exams tomorrow will be Sociology. The test will be conducted from 10.30 am to 12.30 pm. 

  • May 05, 2022 09:18 AM IST

    CBSE Class 10 test 2022: Mathematics paper 

    CBSE Class 10 test 2022 will be for Mathematics paper. The Board will conduct Class 10 Mathematics test Standard and Basic. The examination will begin at 10.30 am and will end at 12.30 pm today across the country at various test centres. 

  • May 04, 2022 01:57 PM IST

    ICSE sem 2 Geography paper: What teachers said in Lucknow

    Seema Hitkari, Poonam Saxena and Suchitra Mishra, teachers of the same school said that the map was 100% scoring. The questions were based on the same structural pattern as their internal examinations and were set with in the prescribed syllabus. 

    The teachers are confident that all the students will pass with good marks.

  • May 04, 2022 01:50 PM IST

    ICSE Geography paper was easy, say Lucknow students

    Many ICSE students in Lucknow claimed that the Geography paper was well balanced and upto the mark. 

    Aymaan,Abhinav, Vishal and Aditi, students of City Montessori Inter College, Aliganj, Lucknow, said the paper was easy but thought provoking. 

    Kartikey, Tanishq and Vaidehi said the paper was easy to comprehend and attempt, but the reasoning part was application based.

  • May 04, 2022 01:45 PM IST

    ICSE Geography paper 2: What students said after exam

    Nitika Rai of St Stephen's School in Sector 45, Chandigarh said, "Our pre boards were more difficult than this exam." 

    Another student, Nehal Juneja added, "I completed the test well in time as the question paper was proportionally divided with enough options in questions for us to choose."

  • May 04, 2022 01:22 PM IST

    ICSE Geography exam: Student reaction

    Anirudh Garg, a student of St Stephen's School in Sector 45 said, "The paper was very easy, questions came from the chapters I prepared well for." Another student here Sahil Kumar, a resident of Sector-45, Chandigarh also felt that the question paper was set maintaining the ICSE standards, "The questions which come in CBSE exams are easier than this," he added.

  • May 04, 2022 01:14 PM IST

    ICSE Geography paper analysis: “Easy, well balanced” paper

    ICSE Class 19 students who appeared for the Geography paper 2 test in Chandigarh found the to be easy and well balanced.

  • May 04, 2022 01:02 PM IST

    CBSE, ICSE answer key 2022

    Students should know that CBSE and CISCE will not release official answer keys of term 2 exams. CBSE, during term 1 exams, released answer keys for some subjects. 

  • May 04, 2022 12:33 PM IST

    CBSE Class 10 Accountancy, ICSE Geography exams end

    CBSE Class 10 Book Keeping and Accountancy and Class 12 Geography paper 2 exams ended at 12:30 pm. 

  • May 04, 2022 11:49 AM IST

    CBSE term 2 board exams 2022: Class 10 Maths paper tomorrow

    CBSE will conduct test for Class 10 Maths (Basic and Standard) papers on May 5. 

  • May 04, 2022 11:00 AM IST

    ICSE Geography paper begins

    ICSE semester 2 Geography (Paper 2) test started at 11 am. The duration of the test is 90 minutes.

  • May 04, 2022 10:40 AM IST

    CBSE term 2 board exams for Class 10 ‘Elements of Book Keeping and Accountancy’ and other minor subjects started at 10:30 am. The Book Keeping and Accountancy paper will end at 12:30 pm.

  • May 04, 2022 10:00 AM IST

    CBSE Class 10, Class 12 term 2 papers begin soon

    CBSE Class 10 and Class 12 term 2 papers scheduled for May 4 will begin at 10:30 am. 

  • May 04, 2022 09:30 AM IST

    CBSE, ICSE term 2 board exam: test day guidelines

    1. Before answering the questions, read the instructions mentioned on the question paper and admit card. 
    2. Write details like roll number, test centre code etc in the space provided for it on the answer sheet. Write these details on the continuation sheets as well. 
    3. Arrange the extra sheets in the proper order and tie it with the answer booklet before handing it over to the invigilator. 
    4. Leave enough time so that you can read the answered questions at the end once. Ensure you have marked the answers correctly. 
  • May 04, 2022 08:41 AM IST

    CBSE term 2 board exams 2022: sample papers

    Sample papers for Class 10 and Class 12 term 2 subjects are available on the CBSE academic portal. Students can go to to download it. 

  • May 04, 2022 08:18 AM IST

    CBSE Class 10 Accountancy, ICSE Geography test live updates

    The duration of the CBSE Class 10 paper, Elements of Book Keeping and Accountancy, is 2 hours. It will begin at 10:30 am. The duration of the ICSE Geography paper 2 test is 90 minutes and 10 additional minutes will be given to read the questions.  

  • May 04, 2022 08:06 AM IST

    CBSE, ICSE term 2 board exams: COVID-19 guidelines

    1. Wear face masks before, during and after the exam. 
    2. Do not overcrowd outside the test hall. 
    3. Maintain social distancing.
    4. Do not share your water bottle and utensils with others.
  • May 04, 2022 07:42 AM IST

    CBSE papers will begin at 10:30 am and the ICSE test will start at 11 am. 

  • May 04, 2022 07:41 AM IST

    CBSE, ICSE term 2 board exams live

    CBSE will conduct board exams for minor subjects, including Book Keeping and Accountancy for Class 10 students on April 4. ICSE Geography paper is also scheduled for Wednesday. 

  • Wed, 27 Jul 2022 04:49:00 -0500 en text/html
    Killexams : How To Become A School Psychologist: Salary, Education Requirements And Job Growth

    Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

    School psychologists fulfill an essential role in their students’ education and wellness. These professionals support students and their families through counseling, academic consultation, crisis intervention and mental health support.

    If you enjoy working with young people and are interested in helping them succeed emotionally, socially and academically, school psychology may be a good career option for you. This article will explore how to become a school psychologist.

    School Psychologist Job Outlook

    The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) projects employment for clinical, counseling and school psychologists to increase by 10% from 2020 to 2030. This increase in demand is due to greater public awareness of the importance of mental health conditions and how these challenges affect student learning, according to the BLS.

    School psychologists work with students to address mental health challenges and prevent those challenges from interfering with learners’ ability to succeed in school.

    What Do School Psychologists Do?

    School psychologists work with students to help them Excellerate and maintain their mental well-being. These professionals use cognitive assessment skills to evaluate and diagnose learning disorders and developmental disabilities, address behavioral challenges, manage crisis intervention activities and provide strategies for improving students’ learning experiences.

    School psychologists interact with parents and teachers to recommend solutions to address students’ behavioral challenges in classroom environments. These psychologists may also implement and evaluate school programs. They can suggest solutions for improvement in teaching and learning strategies to help meet their students’ needs.

    How Much Do School Psychologists Make?

    The median annual salary for school psychologists in the U.S. was $79,510 as of May 2021, according to the BLS. Not all school psychologists work in traditional school settings, however, and exact salaries may vary by industry.

    Experience impacts salary as well. According to Payscale, entry-level school psychologists earn an average annual salary of around $57,000. Once a school psychologist has more than 20 years of experience under their belt, this average exceeds $80,000.

    Steps to Becoming a School Psychologist

    Being a school psychologist comes with stringent requirements. States also have their own requirements, so they differ depending on where you are located. It takes thoughtful planning, years of study and perseverance to become a school psychologist. Below are the steps you need to take to become a school psychologist.

    Earn a Bachelor’s Degree

    The first step to becoming a school psychologist is earning a bachelor’s degree. This degree is a critical part of your learning process, and you should major in psychology or a related field. After completing your undergraduate studies, you can move on to graduate work.

    Earn a Graduate Degree

    In addition to a bachelor’s degree in psychology or a similar field, you should earn a graduate degree in school psychology. Most states require school counselors to complete at least 60 graduate credits and a 1,200-hour internship to become licensed. A few states may certify school psychologists who have fewer than 60 graduate credits, but the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) still requires at least a specialist degree.

    NASP is the leading professional organization for school psychologists in the United States. It also provides support to school psychology professionals in 25 other countries.

    Specialist-Level Degree

    While a master’s degree will help you broaden your knowledge, it’s not enough to become licensed as a school psychologist. A specialist-level degree is the minimum education required for certification or licensure as a school psychologist. Some states may require a doctoral degree. You should check your state’s requirements before enrolling in a graduate program.

    The difference between a master’s degree and a specialist-level degree is that a specialist-level degree requires at least 60 credits and an internship, while a master’s degree typically requires fewer hours and no internship. It takes about three years of graduate study to complete a specialist degree, and a master’s takes about two years.

    Specialist-level degree designations vary by state. Degree examples include education specialist, certification of advanced graduate study, certificate of advanced study and specialist in psychology.

    Doctoral Degree

    While many school psychologists choose a specialist-level degree, others pursue a doctoral degree, which is more comprehensive and may create more career options. A doctoral degree is especially useful if you plan to work in private or independent practice, hospitals, research or academia. A doctoral degree may also qualify you for additional credentials.

    A doctoral degree requires a minimum of 90 credits and more internship hours than a specialist-level degree, depending on the program. Doctoral-level degrees include doctor of psychology and doctor of education.

    Gain Experience with an Internship

    You must complete an internship to become a school psychologist. Requirements vary by state, but internships are typically at least 1,200 hours, with half of those hours completed in a school setting.

    During your internship, you apply your knowledge and skills in a professional setting and under the supervision of a licensed school psychologist. Internships help you gain competence in assessment skills, intervention and prevention strategies, program evaluation and research, ethics, communication skills and technology.

    Obtain Certification

    There are two options for becoming a credentialed school psychologist. Different states require different options. Candidates can become nationally certified school psychologists (NCSPs) through NASP. They may also become certified for a school psychology specialty through the American Board of School Psychology, which requires a doctoral degree. Both of these certification programs require exams.

    Become Licensed Through Your State

    States implement their own licensing procedures for school psychologists. In most cases, aspiring school psychologists become licensed through their state’s Department of Education or Department of Public Instruction.

    Since the NCSP credential is on the national level, most states accept this credential and apply it toward state licensing requirements. This path may entail a teacher certification test, such as the PRAXIS test for school psychologists.

    Check your state’s requirements to find out what you need to do to become licensed in your state.

    Earn Continuing Professional Development Credits

    As a school psychologist, you must maintain your credentials by earning continuing professional development (CPD) credits. To renew your NCSP credentials, you need 75 CPD credits within a three-year period of time.

    You can earn CPD credits through workshops and conferences, in-service training, university coursework, research, self-study and other professional activities.

    Frequently Asked Questions About School Psychologists

    Do school psychologists get summers off?

    School psychologists work nine or 10 months during the school year, and they must continue to build their knowledge and Excellerate their skills to renew their licenses. It’s common for school psychologists to earn their CPD credits during the summer.

    What is the difference between a psychologist and a school psychologist?

    Psychologists and school psychologists both help people Excellerate and maintain their mental well-being by observing, evaluating and suggesting helpful strategies or treatments for behavioral or emotional challenges. School psychologists work with students, families, teachers and administrators, and other psychologists work with many different groups of people, depending on their professional specialization.

    What skills do you need to be a school psychologist?

    School psychologists should have excellent communication, interpersonal, observational, analytical and problem-solving skills. They must exercise integrity and discretion to protect the privacy of learners and their families, and they should enjoy working with students.

    Sun, 31 Jul 2022 22:19:00 -0500 Sheryl Grey en-US text/html
    Killexams : Karnataka National Education Policy position paper suggests modular board exams for classes 10 & 12 BENGALURU: Karnataka’s position paper on reforms in examinations in the state proposes a modular board test for classes 10 and 12 where students will get to write 2-3 exams in a year with subjects split into courses.
    The paper, which is part of the 26 position papers submitted by the state to the Centre, offers recommendations for building the National Curriculum Framework under the new National Education Policy (NEP). This paper called ‘The reform in test and holistic progress card’ has been prepared by a committee chaired by H Muddumallesha, former principal, Vivekananda College of Education, Arsikere, Hassan district.
    The paper recommends that board exams can be offered two or three times a year, with subjects divided into different courses. The final assessment at the end of the secondary stage will be the sum of their performance in each of the modular exams.
    “It will be similar to how CBSE conducted exams this year (it held boards as term 1 and 2),” explained Muddumallesha. Multiple assessments will also help a student, who might have not been able to score well simply because s/he had a bad day on the day of the exam.
    Students should also be given the option of selecting between a simple and an advanced programme of the same subject. “The advanced competencies will be addressed through a supplemental curriculum that students will choose based on their interests and plan for the future. The advanced curriculum will enable deeper engagement with concepts and will, in a sense, enable specialisation,” it said.
    The paper suggests that students be given one more chance to Excellerate the score in each exam. The paper also recommends banning all pen and paper exams for 3-5 years. Evidence of learning in all dimensions needs to be carefully gathered by the teacher who must observe, record and reflect on children’s participation during play and other activities in a continuous, comprehensive and stress-free ways, it suggested.
    It suggests school-level exams in grades 3, 5 and 8 “which will be conducted by the appropriate authority”. “In grade 3, foundational literacy should be in focus, with a cognitively appropriate ratio of oral and written questions. In grade 5, attainment of foundational abilities necessary for learning across subjects should be in focus,” it said. Students in grade 3 will be evaluated mostly through oral assessment, while those in grades 4 and 5 will be evaluated through written as well as oral assessments.
    The formative assessments (those that are conducted on an ongoing basis covering smaller portions of the syllabus), peer assessment, and holistic progress reports should be used to measure the ongoing academic progress of the children.
    In grades 7 and 8, students should be encouraged to participate in debates and discussions.
    Mon, 11 Jul 2022 17:09:00 -0500 en text/html
    Killexams : Fargo police chief aims to 'move the department forward' as improvement plans progress

    FARGO — Plans to tackle improvements in the Fargo Police Department and with its chief as requested by the Fargo City Commission are ongoing after complaints surfaced earlier this year about high turnover and morale issues.

    As the plans and review progress, Police Chief David Zibolski has written detailed responses to five goals set out in a department performance action plan and responded to what's described as the "chief's performance improvement plan."

    Additionally, Zibolski has completed one-on-one interviews with all approximately 200 of the department's employees who aren't on extended leave to learn more about their concerns.

    Most of the face-to-face meetings were completed after The Forum and WDAY News reported on issues within the department in January based on exit interviews. Those interviews showed morale problems apparently led to resignations and retirements, with 25 officers leaving in 2021.

    Some of those leaving blamed the chief for the issues in the department, with one saying the department was in crisis and some officers felt "defeated."

    Following that media coverage, city commissioners voted to implement the improvement and performance plans earlier this year.

    The one-on-one talks with all staff have helped the situation, Zibolski wrote in the latest plan updates from the end of March that were obtained by The Forum.

    The chief wrote he believes they have "helped change the discussion from issues that were plaguing them (employees) upon my start to issues resolved or in process."

    Thus, the chief who started in his job in October of 2020 said, it's "allowing new forward-thinking discussions to occur."

    Tim Mahoney

    Tim Mahoney

    As part of the chief's performance review, the city administration is having weekly discussions with Zibolski and Mayor Tim Mahoney, the liaison to the police department for the City Commission.

    The mayor confirmed in an interview that the chief and the department have been working on the goals for improvements laid out by the city commissioners and administration.

    "I've been pleased with the progress," Mahoney said.

    City Communications Director Gregg Schildberger was asked about the chief writing his own responses to his improvement plan. He replied that Zibolski, as a department head, "is responsible for the implementation and delivery of all elements" within the action plan and his own improvement plan.

    The chief, meanwhile, is also in regular meetings with human resources and the finance department, Schildberger said, to work on issues and budgets.

    As work continues on the city's 2023 budget, the chief is planning to update the city staff and City Commission in a report this summer on changes in staffing numbers, vacancies and retention rates.

    Besides the chief's one-on-one interviews, the city administration is working on a separate, 12-question survey called a "stay interview" that has been offered to all employees to hopefully retain sworn officers and civilian staff.

    The officers and other employees can engage in interviews with their supervisor, a member of the human resources team or city administration, Schildberger said.

    The survey is ongoing, so results are not yet available, he said.

    Mahoney said about 60 of those interviews have been done, and initial reports have been "good." He said they indicate there have been some "old school and new school" issues in the department.

    The mayor said he's impressed with responses from the newer recruits.

    "I think they are going to be rock stars," he said, as they are showing real dedication while also being careful about how they handle their duties.

    The mayor said he believes the department is getting better at addressing "bad experiences" some officers may be having. He agreed that morale and wellness are important as the plans progress.

    Schildberger added the "stay interviews" are part of an initiative that will also be conducted in all other city departments in the upcoming months. The police department was the first to undergo the process, he said.

    Some of the questions that are being asked in the survey and interviews are:

    • What do you like least about your job?
    • Has anything happened that has caused you to think about leaving? What?
    • How would you describe your relationship with your supervisor?
    • What specifically concerns you about the police department's direction or about the city's direction?

    The chief's improvement plan

    In offering details about his own improvement plan, Zibolski wrote about steps he has taken and those the department as a whole are tackling.

    He started his response by writing about his positive relationship with city administration and other department heads. He added he has also "responded to many emails, phone calls and general inquiries from city commissioners without issue."

    In terms of department communications and relationship-building, he said, planning began in 2021 and is continuing into this year, adding that the pandemic hurt efforts for better communication.

    The communication plan is "being fine-tuned in order to support 2023 budget requests as well as to provide a road map for the department over the next five years and beyond," he wrote.

    Video presentations have also been done on a regular basis, Zibolski said, and are "available to all staff in order to keep department members abreast of ongoing programs and issues."

    One other issue to try to Excellerate morale has been urging staff to use their vacation time. Zibolski said he is allowing and encouraging expanded use by the staff after an ongoing shortage of employees affected some vacation requests.

    Police Chief David Zibolski as he gives his police department monthly report to the Fargo Liquor Control Board during their meeting Wednesday, May 18, 2022, in Fargo City Hall.

    Michael Vosburg/The Forum

    In addressing morale and other issues, he said, he wants to "move the department forward in a positive fashion, utilizing established leadership principles and law enforcement best practices."

    "I see continuing growth, cohesion and competence amongst our department team and am proud to be the leader of the Fargo Police Department," he wrote.

    Department performance action plan

    Zibolski has written about plans to address five goals under the Fargo Police Department's performance action plan as outlined by the City Commission.

    Goal 1: Organizational structure evaluation:

    The chief pointed out they had a reorganization plan they rolled out in February of 2021 to create operational efficiencies and career development opportunities for all sworn and civilian staff. The plan was presented to all staff and the City Commission.

    The chief said the plan was developed through operational observations, staff input and his 37 years of experience overseeing four different law enforcement organizations.

    Goal 2: Patrol shift schedules and modification:

    A change in patrol shift scheduling was made last year at the request of a "vast amount of department personnel." Patrol officers voted in favor of the schedule of 10-hour shifts, and it started on March 8, 2021.

    He said the schedule "provides the greatest flexibility to cover shortages while maintaining training and work-life balance." In another review earlier this year, officers voted by 88% to keep the 10-hour schedule, Zibolski said. His one-on-on interviews confirmed the favorable response, he wrote.

    Goal 3: Staff recruitment, retention, satisfaction improvements:

    The chief said the training and development unit has "aggressively been seeking out qualified and diverse candidates regionally and nationally."

    A Police Executive Research Forum, published in March of this year, has updated a national survey that found the issues in this area have not abated but gotten worse nationwide, he said. Although officer hiring rebounded in 2021, the report said, increases in resignations and retirements "continue to put pressure on overall staffing levels of officers." The survey was from 179 law enforcement leaders in 37 states.

    Goal 4: Implementing mental and physical health initiatives:

    A "cultural team" of sworn and civilian staff found that "officer wellness" was an area of concern. Zibolski said planning has been ongoing since late 2020.

    Steps taken since, he reported, have been resiliency training, enhanced physical exams to better address heart disease — the biggest killer in law enforcement — updated and expanded department workout facilities, researching other wellness programs and an ongoing effort to find law enforcement mental health providers.

    In March, Assistant Chief Travis Stefonowicz and a team attended a conference to get ideas and are planning to create a wellness effort that includes physical health, mental health, nutrition, sleep and financial help for staff, the chief wrote.

    Goal 5: Chief and executive leadership team community involvement efforts:

    Zibolski said the pandemic slowed efforts but noted he attended 50 community events and 32 community-specific meetings during his first 16 months. Last year, he said, he also participated in 60 media interviews, and he has done 22 interviews through April 1 of this year.

    He also said he worked on successful passage of a new state law to make it a Class A felony for a drug trafficker to cause an overdose.

    In developing his leadership team, Zibolski said, he has brought in many national training resources and experts.

    "Many in our supervisory ranks were never provided any training to assist them in their new role," he said. Among the courses provided to the leadership team were implicit bias training and de-escalation training. His team also attended several conferences focused on leadership and supervision, he said.

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